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3-  ^  %rr*Ii 

to  tfje 

of  tl|e  |9ttttoBrattg  of  Toronto, 
eminent  (ttanabtan  geologist, 
explorer,  anb  scholar 











Edited  by 



Of  this  book,  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  copies 

have  been  printed  from  type,  of 

which  this  copy  is 


Copyright,  1920, 
By  Missouri  Historical  Society 




Franklin  Hudson  Press 
Kansas  City,  Mo. 





Introduction 1 1 

Journal *7 


Sakakawea — From  a  photograph  supplied  by  the  sculptor, 

Bruno  Louis  Zimm Frontispiece 

First  page  of  Journal Facing  page    27 

Manuel  Lisa Facing  page    45 

Charles  Sanguinet,  fils Facing  page    76 

Fort  Manuel — From  a  drawing  by  W.  O.  Bassford ....  Facing  page    95 

Court  Minute  of  Guardianship Facing  page  106 

Map End  of  Volume 


Letters  from  Christian  Wilt  to  John  C.  Luttig r29 

Biographical  Sketch  of  Sakakawea IJ* 

Biographical  Sketch  of  Toussaint  Charbonneau 135 

Letter  from  Major  Joshua  Pilcher  to  Hon.  T.  H.  Crawford 14.0 

Biographical  Sketch  of  Manuel  Lisa I41 

Letter  from  Lisa  to  "The  Spaniards  of  New  Mexico" 141 

Biographical  Sketches  of: 

Michael  E.  Immell 143 

Amos  Richardson 144 

Colonel  Eli  B.  Clemson H5 

Francois  Robidou 147 

Louis  Bissonet,  dit  Bijou H^ 

Charles  Sanguinet,  fils H9 

Reuben  Lewis 15° 

Major  John  Dougherty IS* 

Jean  Baptiste  Point  du  Sable 153 

Auguste  Durocher T55 

Antoine  Citoleux,  dit  Langevin 1S& 

List  of  Engages  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company,  1812-1813 i$7 



Here  is  set  forth  the  diary  of  a  fur  trader, 
giving  an  account  of  a  voyage  for  the  Missouri 
Fur  Company,  and  the  daily  events  at  Fort 
Manuel.  This  unsigned  manuscript,  in  the  col- 
lections of  the  Missouri  Historical  Society,  was 
thought  worthy  of  publication,  because,  among 
other  reasons,  of  its  connection  with  two  prom- 
inent members  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedi- 
tion, and  of  its  circumstantial  accounts  of  in- 
cidents of  the  fur  trade. 

The  journal  was  kept  in  a  hand-made  book, 
without  covers,  thirteen  inches  long,  eight  inches 
wide,  and  containing  fifty  pages.  It  was  writ- 
ten in  a  very  good  hand,  as  may  be  seen  from 
the  fac-simile  page  herewith. 

The  identity  of  the  author  was  naturally  the 
first  subject  of  inquiry,  and  here  was  presented 
a  difficult  problem.  There  is  nothing  in  the 
journal  that  gives  any  aid  in  this  regard,  ex- 
cepting the  handwriting  and  the  style  of  expres- 
sion. This  latter  feature,  however,  furnished  a 
valuable  clew.  Certain  faults  in  the  spelling 
and  use  of  the  English  language  peculiar  to 
persons  of  German  origin  and  education,  and 
the  unusual  formation  of  the  letter  "r,"  sug- 
gested a  search  for  German  names  in  the  list 


of  the  engages  of  the  expedition.  There  are 
two  such  in  the  list,  one  of  whom  is  John  C. 
Luttig.  While  digging  in  the  old  St.  Louis 
County  court  records  I  was  rewarded  by  the 
discovery  of  papers  signed  by  Luttig,  and  a 
comparison  of  the  handwriting  with  that  of 
the  journal  proved,  beyond  any  doubt,  that 
John  C.  Luttig  was  the  author. 

The  next  inquiry  suggesting  itself  was  for  per- 
sonal details  concerning  Luttig.  Of  course,  it 
is  evident  that  he  was  the  clerk  of  the  expedition, 
and  this  position  was  doubtless  one  of  import- 
ance. We  are  informed  by  historians  that  the 
clerk  was  next  in  authority  to  the  bourgeois, 
succeeding  the  latter  in  command  during  his 
absence,  and  frequently  taking  entire  charge  of 
posts.  It  was  a  part  of  his  duties  to  keep  a 

The  course  of  German  immigration  in  those 
early  days  pointed  to  the  records  of  Pennsyl- 
vania as  a  proper  field  of  research,  but  all  of  the 
work  in  that  direction  was  without  any  gain  or 
encouragement.  Strangely  enough,  a  wealth  of 
material  was  right  at  hand.  There  is  an  old 
letter-copy  book  of  Christian  Wilt,  formerly  of 
Pennsylvania,  in  the  Missouri  Historical  Soci- 
ety, and  in  this  are  many  copies  of  letters  mak- 
ing reference  to  Luttig,  beginning  with  July  3, 
1813.  From  these  references  it  appears  that 


Luttig  was  a  merchant  of  some  importance  in 
the  city  of  Baltimore  before  coming  to  St. 
Louis.  There  is  also  evidence  in  the  Missouri 
Fur  Company  account  books  that  he  served  as 
clerk  and  assistant  auctioneer  at  a  sale  held  by 
the  Fur  Company  at  St.  Louis  in  July,  1809, 
this  being  the  first  record  of  him  in  St.  Louis. 
From  documents  in  the  court-houses  at  St. 
Louis  and  St.  Charles  it  appears  that  Luttig 
sued  Auguste  Chouteau  for  salary  and  com- 
mission for  serving  as  auctioneer  when  the  per- 
sonal property  of  Julien  Dubuque,  deceased, 
was  sold  at  Mine  d'Espagne  (now  Dubuque, 
Iowa),  July  28,  1810.  The  petition  in  the  case 
was  in  handwriting  exactly  like  the  manuscript 

From  Christian  Wilt's  letters,  copies  of  sev- 
eral of  the  most  interesting  being  included  in 
the  Appendix  to  this  volume,  we  learn  of  many 
of  the  personal  characteristics  of  the  author 
of  the  journal — at  least  from  the  view-point 
of  Wilt.  And  this  is  the  only  source  of  infor- 
mation, as  the  Maryland  records  are  barren  of 
reference  to  Luttig  or  his  antecedents. 

It  appears  that  Mr.  Wilt  engaged  Luttig, 
sometime  about  July  3,  1813,  to  make  a  voyage 
from  St.  Louis  to  New  Orleans  in  furtherance 
of  Wilt's  mercantile  business,  which  included  the 
manufacture  of  soap,  the  distilling  of  liquors, 


and  the  operation  of  a  mill.  Wilt  describes 
Luttig  as  a  man  who  "unfortunately  drinks, 
but  who  is  an  excellent  hand  to  sell  goods,  is 
active  and  withal  a  very  clever  fellow."  On 
September  18,  1813,  Wilt  tells  of  losing  Luttig 
to  Gov.  Clark,  who,  he  says,  could  not  do  with- 
out him.  Ten  months  later,  on  July  5,  1814, 
Luttig  seems  to  be  on  an  expedition  for  Wilt 
"on  the  White  River  and  in  the  Spanish  coun- 
try," he  having  started  before  that  date  on  the 
voyage.  He  returned  to  St.  Louis  sometime  in 
August,  1814,  having  been  the  bearer  of  a  letter 
from  Major  Lovely  of  Arkansas  to  Gov.  Clark, 
of  date  August  9,  1814. 

Luttig  remained  in  the  employ  of  Wilt  until 
his  death,  which  took  place  about  July  19,  1815, 
in  the  town  of  Lawrence,  Arkansas,  then  part 
of  the  Territory  of  Missouri.  Notice  of  letters 
of  administration  was  published  by  Elizabeth 
Luttig  and  Moses  Graham,  joint  administrators, 
in  the  Missouri  Gazette,  July  13,  1816.  I  have 
been  unable  to  find  any  court  record  of  this 
administration.  A  few  months  previous  to  his 
death  Luttig  was  appointed  justice  of  the  peace 
"within  and  for  the  settlement  of  White  River" 
in  Lawrence  County,  by  Gov.  Clark. 

The  journal  covers  a  period  when  the  fur 
trade  was  at  its  worst.  The  war  with  England 
affected  the  Indians  and  consequently  the  fur 


trade.  The  St.  Louis  Missouri  Fur  Company 
went  through  a  reorganization  at  this  time  and 
incorporated  under  the  name  of  the  Missouri 
Fur  Company.  In  the  expedition  of  this  year, 
which  cost  about  $11,000,  the  first  boat  started 
from  St.  Louis  on  May  2d,  1812,  and  the  other 
boat  followed  four  days  later.  The  expedition 
seems  to  have  terminated  in  confusion  and  the 
diary,  unfortunately,  stops  abruptly  on  March 
3,  1813.  The  reason  for  all  this  seems  apparent 
from  the  Missouri  Gazette  of  June  5th,  1813, 
which  contains  an  article  in  substance  as  follows: 

"Mr.  Lisa  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company 
arrived  in  St.  Louis  a  few  days  ago  from  the 
Mandan  villages  on  the  Missouri;  the  Aricaras, 
Chyans,  Grosventre,  Crows  and  Aropahays  are 
or  may  be  considered  at  war  with  the  Ameri- 
cans. The  British  Northwest  Company,  hav- 
ing a  number  of  trading-houses  within  a  short 
distance  of  the  Missouri,  are  enabled  to  embroil 
our  people  with  the  savages,  who  are  constant' 
ly  urged  to  cut  them  off." 

While  the  newspaper  article  says  nothing 
about  the  number  of  men  killed,  Christian  Wilt, 
in  one  of  his  letters,  stated  that  fifteen  of  Man- 
uel Lisa's  men  on  this  expedition  had  been  killed 
by  the  Sioux  and  that  the  Mandan  Fort  had  to 
be  abandoned.  Where  and  how  the  members 
of  this  expedition  spent  the  time  between  March 


3,  the  date  of  the  last  entry  in  the  journal,  and 
the  arrival  of  Lisa  in  St.  Louis  in  the  early  part 
of  June,  is  an  interesting  problem.  It  certainly 
did  not  take  all  this  time  to  make  the  home- 
ward journey.  The  hardships  must  have  been 
such  as  to  discourage  the  keeping  of  a  diary, 
or  else  the  work  devolved  upon  some  other  per- 
son. Lisa's  difficulties  with  the  Indians  com- 
pelled him  to  leave  the  Ankara  country,  and 
having  reached  less  hostile  territory,  he  might 
have  been  able  to  concentrate  his  forces  and 
establish  himself  among  the  Omahas.  General 
Chittenden  has  suggested  that  the  noted  Fort 
Lisa,  near  old  Council  Bluffs,  was  erected  dur- 
ing the  War  of  1812.  While  I  have  not  found 
any  positive  proof  of  the  fact,  I  think  the  Fort 
was  probably  built  on  the  return  voyage  of  this 
expedition ;  at  any  rate,  the  great  length  of  time 
consumed  on  their  return  could  be  explained 
in  that  way. 

An  expedition  into  the  Spanish  country  is 
also  mentioned  in  this  journal.  The  enterpris- 
ing Manuel  Lisa,  for  the  purpose  of  extending 
his  operations  into  the  Southwest,  sent  twenty- 
three  of  his  hunters  to  trade  with  the  Span- 
iards; this  was  in  about  1810.  They  went  into 
the  Arapaho  country,  under  the  leadership  of 
Jean  Baptiste  Champlain  and  Jean  Baptiste 
Lafarque,  where  they  knew  the  Spanish  traders 

would  be  found.  Fearing  that  the  McKnight- 
Chambers-Baird  outfit,  which  left  St.  Louis  af- 
ter the  Lisa  party,  might  interfere  with  his  plans, 
Lisa,  on  September  8,  1812,  addressed  a  letter 
to  the  Spaniards  of  New  Mexico.  In  this  he 
urged  them  as  his  compatriots  to  communicate 
with  him,  enter  into  negotiations,  or  send  some- 
one back  to  Fort  Manuel  with  his  messenger. 
This  letter,  set  out  in  full  in  the  Appendix,  and 
the  entries  in  the  journal  bear  somewhat  on  the 
mysteries  surrounding  Ezekiel  Williams,  and  his 
experiences  in  Colorado. 

An  interesting  letter  from  Williams,  published 
in  the  Missouri  Gazette,  September  14,  1816, 
was  reprinted  in  the  Missouri  Historical  Society 
Collections,  Vol.  4,  p.  292.  Williams,  at  the 
time  it  was  written,  was  under  suspicion  of 
murdering  his  comrade,  Jean  B.  Champlain, 
and  for  this  reason  sent  the  above-mentioned 
letter  for  publication.  The  facts  gleaned  from 
Lisa's  and  Williams'  letters  are  these: 

In  1810,  as  stated  above,  Lisa  equipped  and 
sent  twenty-three  of  his  hunters  to  trade  with 
the  Arapahoes.  After  their  return  from  a  suc- 
cessful season,  he  again  equipped  and  sent  them 
back  in  charge  of  Champlain.  Apparently,  on 
this  second  trip,  which  no  doubt  left  in  the  late 
spring  of  1811,  Ezekiel  Williams  joined  the 
party.  They  journeyed  south  from  the  Mis- 


souri  River  and  spent  the  winter  on  the  Ar- 
kansas, where  they  hunted  and  trapped  unmo- 
lested by  the  Indians.  The  next  spring  the 
Indians  commenced  harassing  and  robbing  the 
company,  and  at  the  rendezvous  on  the  Platte, 
as  Williams  says,  in  June,  they  took  counsel 
with  each  other  and  decided  it  would  be  best 
to  separate.  Eight  or  ten  crossed  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  while  the  remainder,  including 
Champlain  and  Williams,  went  south  along  the 
Mountains.  In  this  respect  Williams'  and  Lut- 
tig's  versions  are  almost  identical.  (See  entry 
of  December  12,  1812.)  After  crossing  the  Ar- 
kansas River,  Williams  and  his  party  were  in- 
formed by  the  Indians  that  the  fort  on  the 
Missouri  was  broken  up;  that  Manuel  Lisa  had 
fallen  out  with  the  Indians  near  there;  and  that 
the  Indians  and  trappers  were  killing  each  other 
whenever  they  chanced  to  meet.  The  party 
then  concluded  it  was  impossible  to  return  to 
the  Missouri  and  divided  up  again,  four  de- 
ciding to  try  to  find  the  Spanish  settlements, 
and  Champlain,  two  hired  men,  two  French- 
men, and  Williams  remaining  together.  After 
a  few  months  (so  Williams  says)  of  hunting  and 
trapping,  three  of  the  party  were  killed  by  the 
Indians,  leaving  Champlain,  Williams,  and  a 
man  named  Porteau.  These  decided  to  go  to 
the  Arapaho  village  for  protection,  where,  ac- 


cording  to  Williams,  they  found  the  horses  and 
equipment  of  their  murdered  comrades.  The 
chief  of  this  tribe  advised  them  to  spend  the 
winter  with  him,  assuring  them  of  their  safety 
and  warning  them  that  if  they  attempted  to 
return  they  would  surely  be  killed.  Champ- 
lain  and  Porteau  concluded  to  follow  this  ad- 
vice and  remained,  while  Williams  decided  to 
make  an  attempt  to  find  the  white  people  or 
other  place  of  safety.  After  many  vicissitudes, 
Williams  reached  Boonslick,  after  having  been 
robbed  and  imprisoned  by  the  Kansas  Indians 
and  rescued  by  the  Osages.  According  to  Major 
George  C.  Sibley,  Indian  Agent  for  the  Osages, 
Williams  reached  Arrow  Rock  on  November  30, 
1813.  The  thrilling  experiences  of  Williams 
constitute  the  basis  of  Coyner's  Lost  Trappers, 
an  exaggerated  and  inaccurate  narrative,  to  say 
the  least. 

Williams  further  tells  about  his  seeing  Manuel 
Lisa  afterwards  in  St.  Louis,  of  Lisa's  recount- 
ing to  him  the  difficulties  they  had  with  the  In- 
dians, and  stating  to  him  that  his  comrades  had 
not  returned;  that  they  were  certainly  killed 
if  they  went  the  road  which  they  talked  about 
at  the  parting.  This  statement  is  somewhat 
questionable,  considering  the  entry  made  by 
Luttig  in  December,  1812.  Lisa  then  knew  of 
Champlain's  death,  having  sent  three  of  his 


men,  Charles  Sanguinet  fits,  Charles  Latour, 
and  Chevalier  cadet,  in  search  of  Champlain 
and  his  party,  and  they  had  returned  without 
finding  them. 

In  May,  1814,  Williams  started  back  to  the 
Arapaho  village  to  recover  the  furs  that  he  had 
left  there.  When  he  arrived,  he  inquired  for 
his  companions,  and  was  told  by  the  chief  that 
three  days  after  his  departure  they  went  up  the 
river  hunting.  Soon  afterwards  they  returned 
and  decided  to  make  an  attempt  to  get  back 
to  the  fort  on  the  Missouri.  They  loaded  all 
their  furs  on  their  eleven  horses  and  started 
toward  the  Missouri;  that  later  the  Crow  In- 
dians told  the  Arapahoes  that  they  had  seen 
two  white  men  dead  in  their  camp,  whom  they 
believed  were  Williams'  companions,  Champlain 
and  Porteau. 

Unfortunately  for  Manuel  Lisa  and  his  com- 
pany, as  well  as  for  McKni^ht  and  his  party, 
the  time  was  not  auspicious  for  trade  with  the 
Spaniards  or  the  Southwest  Indians,  for  the 
men  of  these  parties  who  were  not  killed,  or 
lucky  like  Williams,  were  thrown  into  prison 
to  languish  for  many  years. 

The  various  expeditions  conducted  by  the 
Missouri  Fur  Company  were  better  known  as 
"Lisa's  expeditions."  To  speak  of  any  one  of 
them  is  to  call  to  mind  the  personal  character 


of  Manuel  Lisa.  His  successes  as  a  trader  are 
not  more  interesting  than  his  influence  over  the 
Indians,  notably  in  connection  with  the  War  of 
1812.  It  may  be  well  to  quote  from  Lisa  him- 
self while  commenting  upon  his  methods  and 
achievements.  In  his  letter  of  resignation  as 
sub-agent  for  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  Upper 
Missouri,  he  reviews  the  subject  with  much 
earnestness  and  rises  to  the  point  of  eloquence. 
Here  he  says : 

"I  have  had  some  success  as  a  trader;  and 
this  success  gives  rise  to  many  reports.  'Man- 
uel Lisa  must  cheat  the  Government,  and  Man- 
uel Lisa  must  cheat  the  Indians;  otherwise  he 
could  not  bring  down  every  summer  many  boats 
loaded  with  furs.' 

"'Cheat  the  Indians.'  The  respect  and  friend- 
ship which  they  have  for  me,  the  security  of 
my  possessions  in  the  heart  of  their  country, 
respond  to  this  charge,  and  declare,  with  voices 
louder  than  the  tongues  of  men,  that  it  can 
not  be  true.  'But  Manuel  Lisa  gets  so  much 
rich  fur!'  Well,  I  will  explain  how  I  get  it. 
First,  I  put  into  my  operations  great  activity. 
I  go  a  great  distance,  while  some  are  consider- 
ing whether  they  will  start  today  or  tomorrow. 
I  impose  upon  myself  great  privations.  Ten 
months  in  the  year  I  am  buried  in  the  depths 
of  the  forest,  at  a  vast  distance  from  my  own 


house.  I  appear  as  the  benefactor,  not  as  the 
pillager  of  the  Indian.  I  carried  among  them 
the  seed  of  the  large  pumpkin,  from  which  I 
have  seen  in  their  possession  fruit  weighing  one 
hundred  and  sixty  pounds.  Also  the  large  bean, 
the  potato,  the  turnip;  and  these  vegetables 
now  make  a  comfortable  part  of  their  subsist- 
ence; and  this  year  I  have  promised  to  carry 
the  plough.  Besides,  my  blacksmiths  work  in- 
cessantly for  them,  charging  nothing.  I  lend 
them  traps,  only  demanding  a  preference  in 
their  trade.  My  establishments  are  the  refuge 
of  the  weak  and  of  the  old  men  no  longer  able 
to  follow  their  lodges;  and  by  these  means  I 
have  acquired  the  confidence  and  friendship  of 
these  nations,  and  the  consequent  choice  of 
their  trade." 

In  the  matter  of  his  efforts  to  prevent  the 
English  from  effectively  gaining  the  aid  of  the 
Indians  during  the  war,  it  may  be  safely  as- 
serted that  Lisa  was  of  great  benefit  to  his 
country.  Had  the  English  been  successful  in 
uniting  the  Sioux  tribes,  the  effect  upon  the 
people  of  Missouri  would  have  been  very  seri- 
ous, and  it  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  extent  of 
damage  which  might  have  resulted  to  our 
cause.  England  had  sent  emissaries  into  the 
Indian  country,  using  many  artful  methods  to 
set  them  against  the  Americans.  But  Lisa, 


knowing  the  pliable  nature  of  the  Indian  char- 
acter, entirely  overcame  the  English  strategy 
with  some  of  his  own,  and  only  lost  a  few  of 
some  of  the  tribes  to  the  English  cause. 

It  was  during  this  war  with  England  that  Lisa 
received  his  appointment  as  sub-agent  of  the 
Indian  tribes  inhabiting  the  Missouri  River 
above  the  mouth  of  the  Kansas.  At  that  time 
the  British  agents  had  armed  all  of  the  tribes 
of  the  Upper  Mississippi  and  northern  Lakes, 
as  well  as  some  of  the  Missouri  River  Indians, 
and  Lisa  himself  was  the  victim  of  the  first  at- 
tacks against  American  citizens  directed  by  the 
English.  More  than  a  year  before  the  war 
broke  out  Lisa  had  warned  Gen.  Clark  that  the 
English  were  gaining  considerable  influence  with 
the  Indians  along  the  banks  of  the  Missouri 
River,'  by  means  of  gifts  and  bribery,  and  that 
all  the  natives  along  that  river  were  bung  in- 
vited to  join  a  universal  confederacy  of  Indians, 
nominally  for  protection  against  the  American 
invaders.  He  also  asserted  that  the  Indians  of 
the  Missouri  were  to  the  Upper  Mississippi  as 
four  to  one  and  that  their  weight  would  be 
very  great  should  the  English  accomplish  their 

As  it  turned  out,  the  Missouri  River  Indians 
used  their  arms  against  the  British  allies  and 
struck  the  lowas.  When  peace  was  proclaimed, 


more  than  forty  chiefs  "had  intelligence  with 
Lisa,"  and  together  they  were  planning  a  cam- 
paign of  several  thousand  warriors  against  the 
tribes  of  the  Upper  Mississippi,  expecting  to 
quiet  them  with  one  blow.  Part  of  Lisa's  strat- 
egy was  to  excite  war  between  some  of  the 
tribes,  thus  keeping  them  too  busy  with  their 
own  affairs  to  permit  of  intermeddling  with  the 
war  between  England  and  the  United  States. 

In  the  same  letter  of  resignation  Lisa  says, 
by  way  of  conclusion:  "These  things  have  I 
done,  and  I  propose  to  do  more.  The  Ricaras 
and  the  Mandans,  the  Gros-Ventres  and  the 
Assinniboins,  find  themselves  near  the  estab- 
lishment of  Lord  Selkirk,  upon  the  Red  River. 
They  can  communicate  with  it  in  two  or  three 
days.  The  evils  of  such  a  communication  will 
strike  the  minds  of  all  persons,  and  it  is  for  those 
who  handle  the  power  to  dilate  upon  them. 
For  me,  I  go  to  form  another  establishment  to 
counteract  the  one  in  question,  and  shall  labor 
to  draw  upon  us  the  esteem  of  these  nations, 
and  to  prevent  their  commerce  from  passing 
into  the  hands  of  foreigners." 

The  journal  gives  new  light  on  Charbonneau, 
and  the  "Snake  wife  of  Charbonneau,"  who  can 
be  none  other  than  Sakakawea  of  Lewis  and 
Clark  fame.  The  references,  taken  together 
with  certain  well-known  facts  and  records,  tend 

to  disprove  a  good  many  theories  concerning 
both  of  these  characters. 

To  the  enthusiasm  imparted  by  Judge  Walter 
B.  Douglas  and  his  constant  encouragement  I 
owe  the  completion  of  this  undertaking.  His 
expert  knowledge  of  the  subjects  of  the  diary 
have  made  his  suggestions  and  criticisms  of 
very  great  value.  I  am  indebted  and  thankful 
to  many  others,  especially  to  those  mentioned 
in  my  notes. 

Librarian,  Missouri  Historical  Society. 
St.  Louis,  July  2,  1920. 

[1812]  27 



Friday  the  8th  of  May  I  started  from  St.  Louis 
to  Bellefontaine1  to  meet  the  Boats  bound 
up  the  Missouri  River,  arrived  there  at  I. 
oclock  P.  M.,  took  in  Meal  and  Corn,  ar- 
ranged the  Loading,  and  started  at  3.  oclock, 
went  about  4.  miles  with  a  head  wind. 

Saturday,  the  9th  head  wind  and  strong  Cur- 

^Fort  Bellefontaine,  first  a  Spanish  military  post,  then  an  Indian 
Factory  of  the  United  States  Government,  and  later  United  States  Mil- 
itary Fort,  was  located  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Missouri  River,  4 
miles  above  its  mouth,  and  15  miles  from  St.  Louis,  in  what  is  now 
St.  Louis  County,  Missouri. 

The  Indians  demanding  a  military  post  at  this  point,  it  was  stipu- 
lated in  a  treaty  made  at  St.  Louis,  November  3,  1804,  between  William 
H.  Harrison,  Governor  of  Indiana  and  the  District  of  Louisiana,  and 
the  head  chiefs  of  the  Sac  and  Fox  tribes  of  Indians,  that  the  United 
States  would  establish  a  trading-house  or  factory  at  a  point  where 
these  tribes  could  be  supplied  with  goods  at  a  more  reasonable  rate 
than  they  had  been  accustomed  to  enjoy.  In  accordance  with  this 
agreement,  in  August,  1805,  Gen.  James  Wilkinson,  then  commanding 
the  Army,  was  directed  to  select  a  site  for  the  proposed  factory  and  to 
occupy  the  same  with  troops.  On  the  loth  of  August,  1805,  he  re- 
ported that  his  troops  had  encamped  at  "  Cold  Water  on  a  high,  dry 
narrow  bottom  of  the  Missouri  River  near  a  fountain  of  pure  water, 
competent  to  supply  1,000  men  daily,"  *  *  "and  where  they  are 
now  actively  engaged  on  the  work  of  the  cantonment,  and  in  collecting 
materials  for  building  of  the  factory."  This  cantonment  was  given  the 
name  of  Fort  Bellefontaine  for  the  abundant  spring  of  pure  water  in 
its  midst.  Col.  Thomas  Hunt  was  first  in  command  at  this  post.  In 
1808  the  Indian  factory,  which  had  been  during  its  existence  under 
the  charge  of  Rudolph  Tillier  as  Factor,  was  discontinued,  because  it 
was  found  to  have  been  inconveniently  placed. 

From  1809  to  1815  Fort  Bellefontaine  was  the  headquarters  of 
the  Department  of  Louisiana,  which  included  Forts  Madison,  Massac, 
Osage,  and  Vincennes,  and  during  the  War  of  1812  was  frequently 
threatened  by  marauding  bands  of  Indians^ 

On  July  TO,  1826,  the  cantonment  was  abandoned  as  a  military 
post  in  favor  of  a  larger  and  permanent  fort  below  St.  Louis,  although 
a  smal!  arsenal  of  deposit  was  maintained  at  Fort  Bellefontaine  until 
1834.  Only  the  stone  magazine  building  is  still  standing. 

28  [1812] 

rents  made  very  little  way,  at  noon  met  Mr. 
Immel2  with  his  Boat  coming  from  his  win- 
ter quarters  of  the  Sioux,  this  Morning  Mr. 
Manuel  came  on  Board  at  the  Charbonnier3 
made  about  8  miles  distance. 

Sunday,  the  loth,  came  too  opposite4  St.  Charles5 
at  noon  Mr.  Manuel  Lisa  crossed  for  some 
Men,  rested  all  Day. 

Monday  the  nth  Mr.  Manuel  Lisa  &  Choteau6 
came  on  Board  at  9.  oclock  A.  M.  took  in 
some  traps,  and  made  the  best  of  our  way  at 
12.  oclock,  having  a  head  wind  made  very 
little  distance. 

Thuesday.  the  I2th,  head  wind  and  strong  Cur- 
rent, made  not  much  Distance. 

Wednesday,  the  I3th,  the  same  as  yesterday. 
Thursday,  the  I4th,  the  same        

•For  a  sketch  of  Michael  E.  Immell,  see  Appendix. 

•La  Charbonniere,  the  name  given  to  a  coal-bank  on  the  right  shore 
of  the  Missouri  River,  near  Florissant,  and  about  twelve  miles  above 
its  confluence  with  the  Mississippi.  In  French  this  word  strictly  means 
a  place  in  the  forest  where  coal  is  made,  but  as  applied  to  the  bluff  on 
the  Missouri  it  means  the  place  where  mineral  coal  is  procured. 

4Bonhomme  Township,  St.  Louis  County,  Missouri. 

•St.  Charles  is  situated  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Missouri  River, 
about  thirty  miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  Mississippi.  It  is 
the  seat  of  justice  of  St.  Charles  County,  and  was  the  first  capita!  of 
the  State  of  Missouri.  St.  Charles  was  settled  by  the  French  about 
1785,  who  called  the  place  "Les  Petite  Cotes"  and  "Village  des  Cotes," 
from  the  fact  that  the  village  was  situated  at  the  foot  of  a  range  of 
small  hills.  The  place  was  officially  known  as  St.  Charles  soon  after 
its  settlement,  as  a  concession  from  the  Spanish  Government  to  Au- 
guste  Chouteau,  in  1787,  is  described  as  being  for  fifteen  arpentsof  land 
above  St.  Charles,  while  a  letter  from  the  Spanish  Governor,  in  1792, 
refers  to  the  village  as  "San  Carlos." 

•Probably  Pierre  Chouteau  brother  of  Auguste  Chouteau,  one  of 
the  founders  of  St.  Louis. 

[1812]  29 

friday.  the  I5th  in  the  Morning  about  8  oclock 
Mr.  Majet,7  Patroon8  of  the  large  Boat  fell 
over  Board  on  account  of  a  Log  shamming 
against  the  Rudder,  he  saved  himself  by  tak- 
ing hold  of  the  Rudder,  and  got  on  Board, 
both  Rudder  Irons,  brocke  and  Lost,  were 
detained  to  make  a  steering  Oar,  head  wind 
all  Day,  sent  some  Irons  on  shore  by  Mr. 
Richardson,9  and  camped  at  Burgois  Creek.10 

Saturday,  the  16,  detained  on  Account  of  the 
Iron,  which  however  came  about  II  oclock 
A.  M.,  hard  Rain  and  bad  weather,  fixed  the 
Rudder  and  went  about  2  Miles  distance. 
Killed  i  Deer. 

7Jean  Baptiste  Mayet  was  living  in  Carondelet,  St.  Louis  County, 
Missouri,  in  1790.  On  April  17,  1807,  he  left  St.  Louis  with  Manuel 
Lisa  on  a  trapping  expedition  and  returned  in  August,  1808.  He  con- 
tinued in  the  employ  of  Lisa  and  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  for  a 
great  many  years,  and  they  seem  to  have  found  him  both  competent 
and  trustworthy.  Mayet  married  by  civil  contract,  in  1816,  Jo°ette 
Demaret,  and  on  July  8,  1821,  the  marriage  was  solemnized  in  the 
Catholic  Cathedral  in  St.  Louis. 

'Patron.  The  crew  of  a  keel-boat — in  the  fur  trade  called  a  "brig- 
ade "—frequently  consisted  of  as  many  as  a  hundred  men,  although 
this  number  included  many  hunters  and  trappers,  en  route  to  the 
mountains,  who  were  not  regular  boatmen.  They  went  well  armed, 
and  every  boat  carried  on  her  bow  a  small  cannon,  called  a  "swivel. 
The  captain  of  the  boat,  called  the  "patron"  did  the  steering,  and  his 
assistant,  called  the  llbosseman"  stood  on  the  bow,  pole  in  hand,  and 
gave  directions  to  the  men  on  the  cordelle.  It  was  necessary  that  these 
officers  should  be  men  of  great  energy,  physical  strength,  and  personal 
courage.  The  sail  was  seldom  used,  except  m  the  upper  river,  where 
the  absence  of  timber  rendered  the  wind  available.  (Chappell,  Phil  E., 
History  of  the  Missouri  River,  1905.) 

9For  a  sketch  of  Amos  Richardson,  see  Appendix. 

*°Berger  River,  or  Creek,  is  the  "Shepherd  River"  of  the  Lewis  and 
Clark  journals.  Berger  Creek  comes  into  the  bottom  two  miles  above 
its  mouth  and  is  here  joined  by  Little  Berger  Creek,  which  runs  about 
four  and  a  half  miles  in  the  bottom  before  its  confluence,  and  the  two 
make  what  is  known  as  Berger's  Bottom,  forming  a  sort  of  island  six 
or  seven  miles  long.  (Coues  ed.  Pike,  2:365.) 

30  [1812] 

Sunday,  the  lyth  blowing  very  hard  ahead  and 
strong  Current  we  had  to  stop  for  several 
hours,  made  sail  about  2  P.  M.,  just  at  start- 
ing a  Bear  crossed  the  River  towards  us, 
Killed  him  close  in  shore,  and  found  him 
very  fat. 

Monday.  i8th,  still  head  wind  the  Rudder  Irons 
of  the  little  Boat  brocke,  and  had  to  lay  by 
all  Day.  this  Day  killed  four  Deer  2  Turkeys. 

Thuesday.  I9th  bad  weather  and  head  wind 
made  about  one  mile  all  Day  distance. 

Wednesday  20,  head  wind  and  strong  Current, 
made  not  much  Distance. 

Thursday,  the  21.  arrived  at  n.  oclock  A.  M. 
at  Cote  sans  Dessein,11  rested  all  Day.  traded  t 
some  Beaver,  and  took  LaChapel12  on  Board. 

Friday,  the  22d.  started  at  6  in  the  Morning 

"Cote  sans  Dessein  was  the  first  settlement  of  white  men  in  Calla- 
way  County,  having  been  established  as  a  village  by  the  French  traders, 
who  erected  a  fort  there,  in  1808.  It  was  once  a  village  of  considerable 
importance,  containing  a  block-house  during  the  War  of  1812,  and  being 
the  scene  of  some  hard-fought  battles  with  the  Indians.  It  has  ceased 
to  exist,  however,  even  the  post-office  having  been  discontinued.  The 
township  now  including  the  place  of  former  settlement  has  been  given 
its  name,  and  the  hill  which  marked  the  place,  and  from  which  the 
name  Cote  sans  Dessein  is  derived,  can  still  be  identified. 

I2jean  Baptiste  Lachapelle  was  the  son  of  Jean  Baptiste  Lachapelle 
of  Kaskaskia,  Illinois,  and  Cija,  an  Osage  Indian  woman.  He  was 
born  in  St.  Louis,  October  10,  1792,  and  was  probably  the  grandson 
of  Bazile  and  Marie  (Lumandiere)  Lachapelle  of  Montreal,  who  came 
to  Kaskaskia  about  1760.  The  name  was  originally  Janot,  and  in  the 
Kaskaskia  records  it  is  frequently  designated  as  Lachapelle,  dit  Janot.  * 
Jean  Baptiste  Lachapelle,  fits,  was  in  the  employ  of  the  Missouri  Fur 
Company  from  its  organization  until  its  dissolution,  serving  part  of 
that  time  as  a  free  trapper.  He  was  no  doubt  a  kinsman  of  Louis 
Lachapelle,  interpreter  at  the  Pawnee  village,  who  was  slain  in  battle 
there  June  27,  1843;  also  of  David  Lachapelle,  hunter  and  interpreter  at 
the  Ankara  and  Pawnee  villages,  mentioned  by  Murray  and  Maximilian. 

[1812]  31 

with  a  favorable  breeze,  found  the  River  more 
gentled,  had  fine  weather.  Killed  two  Deer 
and  I  Bear,  made  good  head  way. 

Saturday,  the  23d,  fine  weather  &  fair  wind 
made  about  25  miles  distance.  Killed  I  Deer. 

Sunday,  the  24th  clear  weather  and  fair  wind 
made  about  20  miles,  and  camped  about  I 
mile  above  the  Widow  Cole,13  Killed  I  Deer 
and  I  Bear. 

Monday  the  25th  commenced  with  a  thunder 
storm  and  hard  Rain,  cleared  up  about  II 
A.  M.  with  a  fine  fair  wind,  made  about  27. 
Miles,  and  killed  i  Bear. 

Thuesday  the  26,  hard  Rain  and  squalls  all  Day 
made  not  much  distance,  killed  i  Bear  2 

Wednesday,  the  27.  bad  weather  and  head  wind 
again,  killed  two  Deer,  and  made  not  much 

13This  was  Hannah  Cole,  who  erected  a  fort  on  the  edge  of  the  bluff 
near  the  River,  in  what  is  now  East  Boonville,  Cooper  County,  Mis- 
souri. Before  her  marriage  she  was  Hannah  Allison,  and  married  Wil- 
liam T.  Cole  of  Wythe  County,  Virginia.  In  1801  the  Coles  with  their 
nine  children  emigrated  to  Wayne  County,  Kentucky,  where  they  re- 
mained seven  years,  and  then  moved  to  Missouri,  locating  on  Loutre 
Island.  During  the  second  year  (1810)  of  the  family's  residence  on 
Loutre  Island,  William  T.  Cole  was  killed  by  the  Indians.  Soon  after 
this  event,  the  widow  and  her  children,  together  with  her  brother-in- 
law  Stephen  Cole  and  his  family,  went  to  Cooper  County,  they  having 
the  distinction  of  being  the  first  white  families  to  locate  west  of  Frank- 
lin County  and  south  of  the  Missouri  River.  Mrs.  Cole  was  a  very 
heroic  and  energetic  woman.  She  secured  a  license  to  operate  the  first 
regularly  established  ferry  in  that  county,  and  it  was  in  her  home 
that  the  first  session  of  the  Circuit  Court  was  held  in  1816.  The  chil- 
dren of  William  T.  and  Hannah  Cole  were:  Jennie,  Mattie,  Dikie, 
Nellie,  James,  Holbart,  Stephen,  William,  and  Samuel. 

32  [1812] 

Thursday,  the  28,  head  wind  and  strong  Cur- 
rent accompanied  by  heavy  Squalls,  LaChapel 
killed  a  fine  female  Bear,  and  3  of  her  Cubs, 
and  I  Turkey,  made  only  5  miles  this  Day 
and  camped  at  black  snake  Creek.14 

friday.  the  29th  departed  at  Day  light,  oppo- 
site the  little  Osage  Island15  we  were  obliged 
to  stop  on  account  of  head  wind  and  strong 
Current,  arranged  a  new  top  Mast,  went  fish- 
ing with  the  Seine  and  caught  13  large  fish 
I  Turtle,  the  wind  having  comewhat  abated 
we  made  way  at  2  P.  M.  but  still  wind 
ahead,  at  the  little  Osage  Prairie16  we  stopped 
for  the  little  Boat  which  got  aground,  met 
a  shoal  of  Cat  fish  close  in  shore  the  men  who 
were  Cordelling  killed  one  with  a  stick  which 
weighed  after  cleaning  40  Ibs,  went  on  a  little 
way  and  found  a  small  Run  full  of  fish,  the 
other  Boat  not  having  come  up  as  yett  we 
took  our  Seine  and  caught  161  Bass  and  oth- 

l4Lewis  and  Clark  camped  on  Black  Snake  Creek  on  their  out- 
ward voyage,  June  14,  1804.  It  is  not  shown  on  the  present  maps. 

"Little  Osage  Island,  near  the  site  of  Fort  Orleans,  which  was 
established  in  1721  by  Etienne  Venyard  de  Bourgmont. 

i6Little  Osage  Prairie,  called  Petite-sas-Plains,  in  Saline  County, 
Missouri,  about  seventeen  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Grand  River,  was 
the  site  of  the  ancient  village  of  the  Little  Osage  Indians,  and  was  one 
of  the  most  historic  spots  in  Missouri.  It  was  at  one  time  the  home 
of  the  Missouri's,  as  well  as  that  branch  of  the  Osages  known  as  the 
Little  Osages,  or  the  Little  Tribe.  Mr.  Phil  E.  Chappell,  in  his  His- 
ory  of  the  Missouri  River,  says  that  "the  loc  ation  of  these  villages  was 
still  sufficiently  well  defined  to  be  accurately  determined."  When 
Lewis  and  Clark  passed  this  prairie  in  1804,  the  remains  of  the  villages 
were  pointed  out  to  them.  The  location  was  well  known  then,  as  the 
villages  had  only  been  abandoned  about  thirty  years  previous.  It  is 
interesting  to  reflect  that  this  location  was  the  site  of  a  settlement,  in 
earlier  days,  of  a  tribe  of  Indians  having  much  higher  degrees  of  culture 
and  industry.  (Fowke,  Antiquities  of  Central  and  Southeastern  Missouri. 
Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  Bulletin  57.) 


er  fish,  which  we  salted,  camped  and  killed 
2  Deer. 

Saturday,  the  3Oth  fine  weather,  but  very  hard 
water,  swung  3  times  at  a  point  of  a  sandbar, 
the  little  Boat  brocke  her  Rudder  Irons  again, 
repaired  at  Dinner,  Killed  2  Deer  I  Bear  I 
Pelican,  made  not  much  Distance. 

Sunday,  the  3  ist  fortune  still  ahead,  strong  Cur- 
rents and  head  winds  were  our  Daily  Com- 
panions, made  no  way.  Killed  2  Deer  and 
I  Beaver. 

Monday  the  ist  of  June,  hard  wind  a  head  with 
fine  weather  met  4  Batteaux  going  to  St. 
Louis,  a  little  above  the  Prairie  du  foe  (feu)17 
had  to  stop  and  made  another  top  mast  of 
Oack,  the  last  one  made  of  Hichberry  was 
crooked  and  good  for  nothing,  Killed  3  Deer 
I  Bear. 

Thuesday,  the  2d,  the  wind  and  weather  the 
same  as  jesterday.  Killed  this  Day  2  Deer 
and  I  fox,  camped  at  fire  Prairie  Creek.18 

Wednesday  the  3d  fine  weather  and  head  wind 
and  Curren*  as  usual  at  10  A.  M.  arrived  be- 
low fort  Osage,19  saluted  with  17  Guns  which 
was  politely  returned  by  the  Commander 

l7Fire  Prairie  was  so  called  from  the  circumstance  of  three  or  four 
Indians  having  been  burned  to  death  from  the  sudden  conflagration 
of  dry  grass  in  the  meadows  at  its  source."  (Long's  Travels,  London 
cd.,  1823.) 

*8Fire  Prairie  Creek,  in  Sni-a-bar  Township,  Jackson  County,  Mis- 
souri, rises  and  flows  north  and  east  into  Lafayette  County,  and  thence 
into  the  Missouri. 

l9Fort  Osage  was  frequently  called  Fort  Clark  and  Fiery  Prairie  Fort. 


Capt  Climson,20  on  arrival  were  invited  to 
Capt  Climson,  who  treated  us  very  handsome- 
ly, discharged  our  freight  for  this  place  and 
arranged  our  Cargoes,  had  a  present  made  of 
Ice,  which  regaled  us  exceedingly. 

Thursday  the  4th  started  after  breakfast,  about 
9  A.  M.  met  several  Perogues  coming  from 
their  Winter  quarters,  Mess  fr  Robideau21  La 
Jeuness22  &  others,  Louis  Bijou23  embarked 
with  us,  as  also  two  hunters  embarked  at 

It  was  situated  on  a  bluff  on  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri  River,  a 
short  distance  from  where  the  town  of  Sibley  now  stands  in  Jackson 
County,  Missouri.  The  site  was  chosen  by  Gen.  Clark  for  a  Govern- 
ment trading  factory  and  fort.  It  was  christened  with  the  customary 
parade  and  salute  on  November  13,  1808.  George  C.  Sibley  was  in 
charge  as  Indian  Agent  and  factor  for  many  years,  and  after  the  aban- 
donment of  the  fort  the  town  which  occupied  the  site  was  named  for 
him.  In  June,  1813,  during  the  war  with  England,  the  fort  was  evac- 
uated. Major  Sibley  and  his  men  removed  to  Arrow  Rock,  where  was 
erected  a  fortified  two-story  block-house,  30  feet  by  20  feet,  armed 
with  a  swivel  and  three  blunderbusses,  affording  sufficient  room  for 
goods,  for  trading,  and  for  fighting.  The  garrison  was  restored  at 
Fort  Osage  in  1816,  but  was  thereafter  only  intermittently  maintained. 
In  1822  it  was  practically  abandoned,  and  after  the  treaty  with  the 
Osages  the  United  States  Government  was  relieved  of  the  necessity 
of  maintaining  the  post.  Upon  the  erection  of  Fort  Leavenworth  in 
1827  Fort  Osage  was  permanently  abandoned. 

MFor  a  sketch  of  Colonel  Eli  B.  Clemson,  see  Appendix. 

2iFor  a  sketch  of  Francois  Robidou,  see  Appendix. 

^There  were  two  men  of  this  name  active  in  the  fur  trade  during 
this  period.  One,  Jacques  Lajeunesse,  a  native  of  Riviere  du  Chambly, 
Quebec,  son  of  Ambrose  and  Marie  (Goyet)  Lajeunesse,  who  married 
at  St.  Louis,  October  7,  1799,  Helene  Vasseur,  the  daughter  of  Joseph 
and  Helene  (Picard)  Vasseur.  Of  this  marriage  eight  children  were 
born:  Marie,  Margaret,  Louis,  Julie,  Antoine,  Elizabeth,  Francois, 
and  Joseph.  The  other  was  Jean  Baptiste  Lajeunesse  of  St.  Rose, 
Quebec,  son  of  Jean  Baptiste  and  Reine  Naulette.  He  married  at  St. 
Louis,  July  9,  1797,  Elizabeth  Malboeuf  of  Lac  des  Sables,  daughter 
of  Francois  and  Josette,  an  Indian.  This  is  probably  the  man  we  read 
about  in  Lewis  and  Clark.  Lajeunesse  was  a  very  common  name  in 
St.  Louis,  and  many  of  the  men  were  conspicuous  in  the  fur  trade. 

83For  a  sketch  of  Louis  Bissonet,  dit  Bijou,  see  Appendix. 

[1812]  35 

fort  Osage  Greenwood24  &  Laurison,25  Immel 
went  back  to  the  fort  for  his  Dog  and  on  his 
Return  informed  of  the  party  going  to  Santa 
Fe26  he  met  this  Day  at  the  fort,  strong  Cur- 
rent, Made  9  Miles  distance. 

24Caleb  Greenwood  was  an  American,  born  possibly  as  early  as  1763. 
He  was  in  the  employ  of  Gen.  William  Ashley  from  1822-1825,  and 
the  American  Fur  Company  in  1833.  In  this  last-mentioned  year  he 
sought  engagement  as  interpreter  and  hunter  for  Rev.  Moses  Merrill, 
missionary  to  the  Otoes.  He  then  told  Rev.  Mr.  Merrill  that  he  had 
been  in  the  Indian  country  for  twenty-six  years;  that  he  had  just  left 
the  services  of  the  American  Fur  Company  and  was  at  that  time  on 
bad  terms  with  its  agents. 

In  1844  he  guided  the  Stevens  party  to  California  and  later  served 
in  Micheltorena's  army  against  Alvarado  and  Castro.  Edwin  Bryant 
met  him  in  1846  at  the  head  of  a  party  of  hunters  near  San  Francisco 
Bay.  Greenwood  then  claimed  to  be  eighty-three  years  old  and  had 
with  him  three  sons,  the  youngest  about  ten  or  twelve  years  old.  He 
stated  that  he  had  been  a  mountain  trapper  between  forty  and  fifty 
years.  He  lived  among  the  Crow  Indians  and  married  into  that  tribe. 
He  is  described  by  Bryant  as  being  about  six  feet  tall,  raw-boned, 
and  spare  in  flesh,  but  muscular,  and,  although  of  great  age,  having 
the  elasticity  and  erectness  of  youth.  Greenwood  had  just  come  over 
the  mountains  from  the  Sweetwater  as  pilot  for  emigrants  and  com- 
plained of  the  bacon,  bread,  and  milk  which  they  had  to  eat  as  being 
"mushy  stuff,"  and  not  fit  for  a  man  of  his  age.  He  said  he  wanted 
a  small  hunt  to  get  some  exercise  and  some  good  fresh  meat,  such  as 
grizzly  bear,  fat  deer,  and  poultry,  which  he  considered  fit  things  for 
a  man  to  eat. 

25Daniel  Larrison  was  with  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  for  several 
years,  and  was  with  Lisa's  party  in  the  expedition  to  the  Rocky  Mount- 
ains in  1809.  He  returned  to  St.  Louis  in  September  of  the  following 
year.  In  October  of  1813,  following  the  return  of  the  expedition  re- 
ferred to  in  this  journal,  he  is  to  be  found  trading  among  the  Osage 
Indians.  He  was  sent  by  them  to  the  Kansas  village  when  the  Osages 
learned  that  there  was  a  white  man  (Ezekiel  Williams)  held  prisoner 
in  that  village,  in  order  to  rescue  him.  In  1814  Larrison  joined  Capt. 
James  Callaway's  company  of  St.  Charles  County  Rangers,  and  was 
in  the  expeditionary  forces  under  Maj.  Zachary  Taylor,  operating  that 
year  on  the  Upper  Mississippi.  Daniel  Larrison  probably  lived  in  St. 
Charles,  Missouri,  but  nothing  about  his  personal  life  has  been  found. 
There  was  a  John  Larrison  with  Gen.  Ashley's  party  in  1823,  who  was 
wounded  in  July  of  that  year,  when  this  party  was  attacked  by  the 

28The  Santa  Fe  Party  consisted  of  twelve  men,  under  the  leadership 
of  Robert  McKnight,  James  Baird,  and  Samuel  Chambers.  They 


friday  the  5th  wind  and  Current  as  usual,  fine 
weather  made  about  12  miles  distance  Killed 
i  Deer. 

Saturday.  6th  the  same  wind  &  Current,  Killed 
3  Bear  3  Deer  i  Turkey  camped  opposite 
Cansas  River27  distance  15  Miles. 

Sunday  the  7th  a  fine  morning,  in  the  afternoon 
cloudy  and  distant  Thunder,  Killed  2  Deer, 
made  16  Miles  distance,  camped  4  Miles 
above  little  Platte  River.28 

Monday.  8th  fine  weather,  at  8  A.  M.  a  fair 
Breeze  sprung  up.  though  feeble,  we  made 
18  Miles  distance,  Killed  3  Deer  3  Bear, 
caught^iy  fish,  camped  2  Miles  below  the  old 
Cansas29  Village. 

planned  to  trade  with  the  Mexicans  at  Santa  Fe,  but  on  their  arrival 
in  New  Mexico  were  seized  as  spies  and  their  goods  confiscated.  They 
were  sent  to  Chihuahua,  where  they  were  kept  in  prison  for  nine  years. 

^Present  site  of  Kansas  City,  Missouri. 

28The  Little  Platte  has  its  source  in  southern  Iowa,  and  flows  south  to 
the  Missouri  River  in  Platte  County,  Missouri.  Its  mouth  is  at  Park- 
ville.  The  position  of  the  mouth  of  the  river  has  changed  much 
since  1812. 

^Kansas  Indians.  Major  George  C.  Sibley  visited  the  Kansas  In- 
dians in  August,  1811,  and  gave  a  most  interesting  account  of  them, 
as  follows: 

"The  Konsee  [as  he  spells  it]  town  is  seated  immediately  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Kansas  River  about  100  miles  by  its  course  above 
its  junction  with  the  Missouri,  in  a  beautiful  prairie  of  moderate  extent, 
which  is  nearly  encircled  by  the  river. 

"The  town  contains  128  houses,  or  lodges,  which  are  generally 
about  sixty  feet  long  and  twenty-five  feet  wide,  constructed  of  stout 
poles  and  saplings  arranged  in  the  form  of  an  arbour,  covered  with 
skins,  barks,  and  mats.  They  are  commodious  and  quite  comfortable. 
The  place  for  fire  is  simply  a  hole  in  the  earth  under  the  ridge-pole 
of  the  roof,  and  where  an  opening  is  left  for  the  smoke  to  pass  off.  All 
the  larger  lodges  have  two,  sometimes  three,  fire-places,  one  for  each 
family  dwelling  in  it. 

'"The  town  is  built   without  much  regard  to  order,  there  are  no 

[1812]  37 

Thuesday  9th  headwind  again,  strong  Current, 
made  only  9  Miles  distance  this  Day,  Killed 
6  Deer. 

Wednesday.  loth,  fine  weather,  and  a  small 
Breeze  in  our  favor,  Killed  nothing  today, 
distance  made,  19  Miles. 

Thursday  the  I  ith,  fine  weather  head  wind  but 
still,  all  hunters  out,  passed  the  upper  old 
Cansas  Village,  Killed  7  Deer,  distance  15 

friday  the  12,  fine  weather,  made  good  way  cor- 
dclling  the  wind  all  Day  against  us,  distance 

regular  streets  or  avenues;  the  lodges  are  erected  pretty  compactly 
in  crooked  rows,  allowing  barely  enough  space  sufficient  to  admit  a 
man  to  pass  between  them. 

"The  Kansas  River  is  about  300  feet  wide  at  the  town,  and  is,  I 
suppose,  always  navigable  for  large  keel-boats  as  high  as  the  village. 
At  this  time  the  Kansas  may  number  near  about  250  fighting  men, 
with  a  full  proportion  of  women  ind  children. 

"They  ?re  governed  by  a  chief  and  the  influence  of  the  oldest  and 
most  distinguished  warr  ors.  They  are  seldom  at  peace  with  any  of 
their  neighbors,  except  the  Osage,  with  whom  there  appears  to  be  a 
cordial  and  lasting  tnendship. 

"The  Kansas  are  a  stout,  hnrdy,  handsome  race,  mor<*  active  and 
enterprising  even  than  the  Osage.  They  are  noted  for  their  bravery 
and  heroic  daring.  They  maintain  tiieir  independence  against  the 
Pawnees,  Otoes,  Mtssouris,  and  other  tribes  with  whom  they  are 
continually  at  war,  entirely  by  their  bravery.  Previously  to  the  ces- 
sion of  Louisiana,  the  Kansas  committed  frequent  acts  of  violence 
upon  the  French  traders,  robbing,  beating,  and  otherwise  cruelly  treat- 
ing them.  One  instance  is  related  of  their  having  actually  burned 
some  alive." 

These  Indians  had  their  villages  for  a  time  on  the  south  bank  of 
the  Missouri,  and  while  there  were  quite  numerous.  They  were  sub- 
sequently attacked  by  the  Cheyennes,  Sauks,  and  lowas  and  compelled 
to  return  to  their  former  settlements  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kansas. 
Lewis  and  Clark  found  them  in  two  villages  on  the  Kansas  River,  one 
about  twenty  and  the  other  forty  leagues  from  its  mouth.  In  1847 
they  moved  to  Council  Grove,  where  they  remained  until  1873.  At 
this  later  date  they  went  to  Indian  Territory.  Efforts  to  civilize  this 
tribe  of  Indians  met  with  little  success  for  many  years. 

38  [1812] 

21  Miles  camped  on  a  large  Sandbar  where 
we  found  a  quantity  of  turtle  Eggs,  this  Day 
lost  one  of  our  Swivels  when  swinging  round 
and  run  against  the  other  Boat,  Killed  3 
Deer  2  Turkeys. 

Saturday,  the  I3th  fine  weather  and  head  wind, 
this  Day  had  bad  luck,  crossing  for  some  of 
our  Hunters  we  came  in  hard  water,  and  cor- 
delling  on  a  Prairie  encountered  many  Rafts, 
after  having  passed  we  dined  2  Miles  above 
the  Prairie.30  Mr.  Manuel  L.  put  our  2  Hogs, 
in  the  River  to  wash  but  they  swam  off,  we 
were  obliged  to  turn  about  and  followed  them 
several  Miles,  after  two  Attempts  we  caught 
them,  turning  a  rocky  point  we  had  hard 
work,  the  little  Boat  which  was  a  head  swung 
round  and  went  off  like  Lightning,  the  Cor- 
dells  broke,  and  we  were  obliged  to  put  the 
hands  of  both  Boats  to  one  to  mount — dis- 
tance 12  Miles  Killed  5  Deer  i  Racoon. 

Sunday,  the  I4th  fine  weather,  but  head  wind, 
passed  the  Nadowa  River31  at  noon,  camped 
8  Miles  above  made  16  Miles  distance  and 
had  this  Day  4  Deer  Killed  gathered  about 
200  turtle  Eggs. 

30Probably  Reevey's  Prairie  as  mentioned  by  Capt.  Clark  in  his 
journal,  which  place,  he  adds,  was  named  for  a  man  who  was  killed 

31Nockway,  as  it  is  spelled  by  present  geographers,  having  had  many 
variations  in  ics  spelling,  such  as  Nadawa,  Nodawa,  Naduet,  and  Nado- 
way.  Coues,  in  his  History  of  Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition,  says  that 
the  word  "Nodaway"  is  Indian,  and  means  some  kind  of  snake;  hence 
the  river  has  sometimes  been  called  "Snake  River."  The  river  separ- 
ates Holt  County,  Missouri,  on  the  west  from  portions  of  Andrew  and 
Nodaway  Counties.  It  was  on  the  shore  of  this  river  that  the  winter 
camp  of  the  Astorians  was  located.  There  is  a  county,  and  also  a 
town,  bearing  the  name  of  this  river. 


Monday.  I5th  about  one  oclock  this  Morning 
it  began  to  blow  furiously,  were  obliged  to 
put  out  our  fires,  the  wind  blowing  from  all 
quarters,  a  clear  Sky,  finished  our  cooking 
in  the  morning,  started  at  6.  in  the  Morn- 
ing went  j^-2  Miles  but  were,  stopt  by  hard 
head  wind  and  Current  crossed  the  River  to 
find  some  Hickory  for  making  Axe  handles 
and  Ramrods,  but  were  disappointed,  crossed 
again  and  stopped  till  5  P.  M.,  started  about 
I  Mile  took  the  Cordell  the  Boat  swung  and 
went  down  the  River  like  the  Wind  in  full 
Speed,  leaving  all  hands  on  shore,  the  few 
which  were  on  Board  landed  the  Boat  op- 
posite to  our  last  nights  Lodging,  our  hands 
came  on  board  made  a  new  start,  but  night 
overtook  us,  got  on  a  sand  bar  and  were 
very  near  lost  running  against  a  Sawjer32  had 
to  cross  again  to  the  North  Side,  the  other 
Boat  came  to  close  swept  by  the  Current  we 
unshipped  our  Rudder,  run  against  a  tree  and 
brocke  her  mast,  this  ended  this  doleful  Day 
camped  at  n.  oclock  at  night  distance  i>? 
Mile,  left  our  hunters  on  the  opposite  side 
Killed  i  Deer,  wind  N.  W.  fresh  Gales. 

Thuesday  the  16,  hard  wind  from  N.  W.,  went 
about  i  Mile  in  the  Morning  when  we  had 
to  stop,  all  hands  went  out  to  gather  wood 
for  axe  helm,  Ramrods  and  a  new  Mast,  and 
Game,  the  first  was  found  but  no  meat,  our 
hunters  on  the  opposite  Side  had  also  been 

32  A  '"'sawyer"  is  a  snag  or  tree  so  fixed  in  the  river  that  it  oscillates 
or  bobs  up  and  down  by  the  force  of  the  current,  and  forms  a  special 
danger  to  navigators  of  the  Missouri  River. 

40  [1812] 

unsuccessful,  and  crossed  the  River  on  a  Raft, 
facing  wind  and  Current  about  6  Miles  swim- 
ming. Killed  I  Deer. 

Wednesday  ryth  wind  still  a  head,  but  abated, 
made  this  Day  16  Miles,  Killed  3  Deer,  when 
camped  a  fair  breeze  sprung  up. 

Thursday,  the  i8th  at  3.  oclock  in  the  Morning 
a  heavy  Thunder  storm,  at  starting  we  had 
a  fair  wind  which  however  lasted  not  long, 
had  to  try  oars.  Poles  &  cordells  all  Day, 
passed  Nimohar  River33  at  n  A.  M.  dined 
at  Wolf  River,34  and  camped  on  a  Sand  Bar, 
made  16  miles  distance  Killed  3  Deer. 

friday,  the  I9th  During  Night  blew  very  hard 
until  6  in  the  morning,  we  stopped  for  some 
time  having  head  wind  and  strong  Current, 
the  River  high,  made  this  Day  about  15  Miles 
distance  by  hard  work.  Killed  nothing,  ail- 
though  7  hunters  out  of  Boats. 

Saturday,  2Oth,  hard  Gales  all  night,  in  the 
Morning  cloudy  with  some  flaws  of  wind  in 
our  favor,  about  8  A.  M.  the  wind  increased, 
and  we  sailed  at  Intervals  very  fast,  untill  2 
P.  M.  when  a  Thunder  storm  attended  with 
a  hard  rain  arose,  this  Day.  at  10.  A.  M. 

33The  Big  or  Great  Nemaha,  variously  written  Nimemeha,  Nimaka, 
Nemahhaw,  Nidonahaw,  by  early  explorers  and  travellers.  It  rises  in 
Lancaster  County,  flows  in  a  southeasterly  direction  diagonally  through 
Gage,  Johnson,  Pawnee,  and  Richardson  Counties,  Nebraska,  and  joins 
the  Missouri  just  above  the  Kansas-Nebraska  line. 

34Wolf  River  (the  early  French  maps  give  it  as  Riviere  du  Loup) 
flows  through  Brown  and  Doniphan  counties,  Kansas,  and  into  the 
Missouri  just  below  Iowa  Point. 


passed  Ichinipokine  River35  at  the  North  Side, 
at  7.  P.  M.  little  Mahonir  River36  on  the 
South  Side, — made  about  20  Miles  distance, 
Killed  2  Deer,  Game  scarce. 

Sunday,  the  2ist  fine  weather  with  head  wind 
and  Currents,  all  hunters  out,  on  the  Island 
Beaux  Soleil.37  Killed  2  Deer  3  Bear,  I  Tur- 
key. I  Rabbitt  the  hunters  on  the  Prairies 
killed  nothing,  distance  about  15  miles, 
camped  I  Mile  above  the  Island. 

Monday,  the  22d,  cloudy  had  now  and  then  some 
Sailing,  the  River  still  rising  and  strong  Cur- 
rents, at  4  P.  M.  a  thunder  storm  arose  which 
raged  furiously,  the  huricane  swayed  the  trees 
every  where  luckely  we  got  under  some  Vil- 
lars  and  lay  safe,  were  obliged  to  Camp., 
distance  10  Miles,  Killed  i  Deer,  I  Turkey. 

Thuesday  the  23d,  started  at  Day  light  as  us- 

36Ichmpokine  River  is  now  known  as  Nishnabotna,  an  Indian  word 
signifying  "Good  Canoe"  or  "Canoe  Making  River."  This  is  another 
name  having  numerous  styles  of  spelling.  It  is  a  Missouri  tributary  of 
considerable  size,  entering  Atchison  County,  Missouri,  on  the  north  line, 
and  following  the  bluffs  in  a  southeasterly  direction.  Its  channels  are 
constantly  changing.  Some  years  ago  the  stream  cut  its  channel  into 
the  Missouri  River  at  a  point  near  the  north  line  of  the  county  and 
emptied  its  waters  into  the  Missouri  some  forty  miles  above  its  original 
mouth.  There  is  a  village  bearing  this  name  close  to  the  present 
mouth  of  the  Nishnabotna. 

MLittle  Nemaha  has  its  source  in  Cass  County,  runs  through  the 
county  in  Nebraska  which  bears  its  name,  and  empties  into  the  Mis- 
souri between  the  towns  of  Aspinwall  and  Nemaha.  It  runs  parallel 
with  and  from  ten  to  fifteen  miles  north  of  the  Great  Nemaha.  There 
are  a  town  and  a  county  in  Nebraska,  as  well  as  a  county  in  Kansas, 
bearing  the  name  of  this  river.  The  Little  Nemaha  is  a  smaller  edi- 
tion of  the  Big  Nemaha  and  also  has  numerous  tributaries. 

37Isle  &  Beau  Soleil,  or  Fair  Sun  Island,  now  known  as  Sun  Island, 
located  midway  between  Peru  and  Brownsville,  Nebraska. 


ual,  passed  le  Cote  grand  Brule*,38  opposite 
the  head  of,  we  had  to  stop  to  make  a  new 
top  Mast  for  the  other  Boat,  fine  weather, 
Current  very  hard,  River  still  rising,  distance 
14  Miles,  Killed  3  Deer. 

Wednesday,  the  24th,  St.  John,39  started  at  3 
in  the  Morning  with  fair  wind,  but  had  not 
come  y^.  Mile  when  the  Wind  changed  ahead, 
worked  hard  against  the  Current,  very  warm 
and  clear,  made  only  9  Miles  in  14  hours  dis- 
tance, Killed  i  Deer  2  Turkey,  2  Racoons, 
found  plenty  fresh  tracks  of  Elk. 

Thursday,  the  25th  This  Morning  a  fine  breeze 
sprung  up  and  we  had  sailing  all  Day,  but 
by  the  Mismanagement  of  the  Patroon  of  the 
little  Boat  were  detaine4  several  times  we 
camped  before  Sunset  to  lett  the  little  Boat 
come  up  with  us,  about  dark  we  heard  a  Gun, 
but  she  did  not  come  to  our  Camp,  the  wind 
blew  fresh  all  night  made  about  15  Miles 

Friday  the  26th  at  2.  oclock  25  Minutes  in  the 
Morning  we  turned  about,  to  look  for  the 
little  Boat  and  found  her  safe  I  Mile  below 
our  Camp,  we  set  sail,  and  went  pretty  well 
till  Sunrise,  when  the  Wind  failed,  very  strong 
Current,  and  hard  work  to  gain  way.,  at  7 
A.  M.  Baptist  Latoulipe40  of  St.  Louis,  fell 

38Cote  Grand  Brule  must  be  "Bald-pated  Prairie,"  so  named  by 
Lewis  and  Clark  "from  a  ridge  of  naked  hills  which  bound  it,  run- 
ning parallel  with  the  river  as  far  as  we  could  see,  from  three  to  six 
miles  distance." 

s9The  anniversary  of  the  birth  of  St.  John  the  Baptist. 

^Jean  Baptiste  Latulippe.     Tanguay  gives  more  than  half  a  dozen 



over  Board  and  never  seen  again,  the  two 
Boats  being  close  together,  he  could  not  rise, 
or  was  entangled  by  the  Roots  of  a  large 
tree,  which  he  was  going  to  strike  with  his 
Pole. — made  River  Platte41  at  n.  A.  M,  dined 

variations  or  dit  names  of  Latulippe.  In  the  census  of  1787  for  the 
District  of  Ste.  Genevieve  there  is  a  Jose  Latulippe  listed  as  a  stone- 
mason, who  worked  on  Fort  Celeste  at  New  Madrid. 

Jean  Baptiste  on  July  22,  1805,  was  engaged  by  Louis  Aimable 
Demarais  to  hunt  beaver  from  September  until  the  May  following, 
but  no  place  of  destination  was  given  in  the  engagement.  In  August, 
1806,  he  was  in  the  service  of  Auguste  Chouteau  on  the  Osage  River, 
and  was  used  as  a  messenger  by  Gen.  Zebulon  Pike  on  August  14, 
1806.  (Doc.  No.  8  of  Appendix  to  Part  2.)  Coues,  in  his  edition  of 
Expedition  of  Ztbulon  M.  Pike,  expresses  the  opinion  that  this  Latulippe 
and  the  one  mentioned  by  Fremont  are  the  same.  In  this  he  is  mis- 
taken, as  in  the  list  of  Fremont's  engaz&s,  in  the  introduction  to  his 
report  of  1845,  the  name  is  given  as  Frangois  Latulippe.  Gen.  Fremont 
tells  of  meeting,  in  1843,  an  old  friend,  "a  hardened^and  hardly-served 
veteran  of  the  mountains,  who  flourished  in  the  sobriquet  of  La  Tulipe, 
and  his  real  name  I  never  knew/' 

Jean  Baptiste  Latulippe  remained  in  the  employ  of  Chouteau  until 
the  organization  of  the  St.  Louis  Missouri  Fur  Company,  when  he  joined 
its  forces. 

In  Dr.  John  Farrar's  account-book  of  1813  is  the  following  entry: 
"Mrs.  Elizabeth  Laturlipe,  To  visits  to  children  and  servants  and  your 
own  child,  May  to  August,  1813,  A.  P.  Chouteau  to  pay."  Letters  of 
administration  on  the  estate  of  Latulippe  were  granted  to  A.  P.  Chou- 
teau January  24,  1813,  which  was  probably  near  the  time  when  news 
of  his  death  first  came  to  St.  Louis.  Unfortunately,  the  only  paper  in 
the  files  of  this  estate  in  the  St.  Louis  Probate  Court  is  the  bond  of  A.  P. 
Chouteau  as  administrator,  being  for  the  sum  of  #25.00.  In  the  files 
of  the  estate  of  Auguste  Chouteau,  deceased,  are  to  be  found  two  notes 
signed  with  a  mark  by  Latulippe  in  favor  of  the  former,  one  dated 
February  20,  1808,  payable  in  skins,  and  the  other  dated  August  12, 1810. 

Latulippe  probably  came  to  Missouri  from  Vincennes,  as  there  was 
a  Latulippe  family  there  in  1773. 

41The  Platte  is  the  great  western  tributary  of  the  Lower  Missouri.  It 
is  a  broad,  shallow  stream  with  low  banks,  about  1,200  miles  in  length, 
draining  most  of  Nebraska  and  portions  of  Wyoming  and  Colorado^. 
Its  mouth  is  taken  as  the  line  between  the  Upper  and  Lower  Missouri. 
Platte  is  the  French  form  of  the  name;  the  river  has  been  called  the 
Nebraska  and  the  Flatwater.  "The  Platte  is  regarded  by  the  navi- 
gators of  the  Missouri  as  a  point  of  as  much  importance  as  the  equi- 
noctial line  amongst  mariners.  All  those  who  had  not  passed>  it  be- 
fore were  required  to  be  shaved,  unless  they  could  compromise  the 

44  [1812] 

and  weather  very  hot,  remained  three  hours., 
at^3  P.  M.  passed  River  Papillion42  made  12 
Miles  distance,  Killed  i  Deer. 

Saturday,  the  27th  departed  as  usual  and  the 
Water  not  so  strong  as  below  the  River 
Platte,  this  Morning  passed  Mosquito  Riv- 
er,43 distance  20  Miles,  Killed  4  Deer  i  Goose. 

Sunday  the  28th,  made  pretty  good  way  in  the 
Morning  but  about  10  A.  M.  the  'Rudder 
stay  brocke  of  the  little  Boat  we  were  obliged 
to  cross  the  River  to  find  a  place  to  unload 
her,  and  make  a  steering  Oar,  which  took  up 
all  Day.  distance  6  Miles,  Killed  i  Deer. 

Monday  the  29th  This  Day  had  at  Intervals 
some  sailing  the  River  crooked  as  a  zick  zack, 
passed  River  Boje'44  at  9  A.  M.  point  Jacques45 

matter  by  a  treat.  Much  merriment  was  indulged  on  the  occasion.'* 

"Papillon  Creek  (from  a  French  word  meaning  Butterfly)  is  in  Sarpy 
County,  Nebraska.  Lewis  and  Clark  camped  here  for  several  days  on 
their  upward  journey  to  treat  with  the  Indians.  The  town  of  Papillon 
is  the  county  seat  of  Sarpy  County,  situated  on  the  south  fork  of  the 
Papillon.  Ramsey  Crooks  and  Robert  McClellan  had  a  trading-post, 
in  1810,  a  little  above  the  creek. 

43Mosquito  Creek  runs  in  a  southwesterly  course  entirely  across 
Pottawattamie  County,  Iowa,  touching  the  city  limits  of  Council  Bluffs, 
and  entering  the  Missouri  Valley  a  short  distance  below  the  city. 

44Boyer  Creek  (or  River,  as  it  is  now  called)  winds  its  way  through 
several  counties  of  western  Iowa,  and  joins  the  Missouri  about  ten  miles 
above  Council  Bluffs.  It  was  sometimes  called  Roger  Creek.  It  was 
explored  in  1820  by  Thomas  Say,  of  Major  Long's  expedition.  Three 
miles  above  its  mouth,  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  Missouri,  in  what  is 
now  Washington  County,  Nebraska,  Major  Long  established  himself 
September  7,  1819,  and  named  the  place  "Engineer  Cantonment." 
The  site  was  half  a  mile  above  Fort  Lisa. 

4i"Coup£e  &  Jacques,  where  the  river  has  found  a  new  bed  and 
abridged  a  circuit  of  several  miles."  (Coues  ed.  Lewis  and  Clark, 
1:71.)  There  is  a  well-known  point  bearing  this  name  farther  up  the 

[1812]  45 

at  2  P.  M.  and  council  Bluff46  at  4  P.   M. 
distance  20  Miles,  Killed  i  Deer. 

Thuesday,  the  3Oth  fine  weather  and  sailing 
we  pushed  on  very  well,  and  would  have 
made  considerable  way  if  it  had  not  been  for 
the  other  Boat,  were  obliged  to  stop  to  make 
another  steering  Oar  for  her,  during  which 
time  our  hunters  killed  3  Deer,  distance  27. 

Wednesday,  the  I  of  July,  fine  weather  and  fine 
sailing  at  3  P.  M.  passed  Soldier  River,47 
Missouri  very  crooked,  no  hunters  out,  dis- 
tance 34  Miles,  saw  some  Elk. 

Thursday  the  2d  fine  weather  head  wind  but 
good  water  made  good  way,  cordelling  all 
Day,  camped  at  the  Mouth  of  little  Sioux 
River48  distance  23  Miles,  Killed  4  Deer  I 

friday.  the  3d  of  July,  fine  weather  and  light 

river  and  it  is  shown  on  the  Missouri  River  Commission  map  as  being 
opposite  St.  Helena,  in  Cedar  County,  Nebraska. 

"Council  Bluffs.  This  name  was  given  to  these  bluffs  by  Lewis 
and  Clark,  who  held  at  this  place,  in  1804,  an  important  council  with 
the  chiefs  of  the  neighboring  tribes.  The  first  United  States  military 
post  west  of  the  Missouri  River  was  built  here  by  a  detachment  under 
Col.  Henry  Atkinson,  in  1819.  The  fort  was  christened  Atkinson  for 
its  founder,  and  was  so  known  to  the  Government,  but  locally  it  seems 
to  have  been  called  Fort  Calhoun.  There  is  a  town  near  by  now  known 
as  Calhoun,  in  Washington  County,  Nebraska.  Council  Bluffs  is  the 
name  of  a  flourishing  city  in  Pottawattamie  County,  Iowa. 

*7Soldier  River  is  marked  Rivibre  des  Soldats  on  Perrin  du  Lac's  map, 
and  Soldier's  River  on  the  Missouri  River  Commission  maps.  It  flows 
through  Ida,  Crawford,  Monona,  and  Harrison  counties,  Iowa. 

ttThe  Little  Sioux  rises  near  the  source  of  the  Des  Moines,  flows  in 
a  southwesterly  course  and  into  the  Missouri  about  midway  between 
Sioux  City  and  Council  Bluffs.  It  was  called  by  the  French  Petite 
Rivikre  des  Sioux. 

46  [1812] 

favorable  Winds  in  the  forenoon.,  at  i  P.  M. 
passed  Coup  Loysele,49  distance  18  Miles. 

Saturday  the  4th  of  July.,  we  had  ourselves  pre- 
pared to  salute  the  Day,  which  gave  Birth 
to  the  Independence  of  the  United  States,  put 
a  Salute  from  Heaven  prevented  us,  a  thun- 
der storm  arose  at  2  in  the  Morning  and  the 
Bank  of  the  River  where  we  camped  fell  in 
upon  us  momently.  Mr  Manuel  Lisa  was 
nearly  drowned  in  his  Bed,  and  we  had  to 
run  off.,  rowing  and  poling  all  Day,  about 
Sunset  a  favorable  wind  sprung  up  and  car- 
ried us  several  Miles,  were  obliged  to  leave 
a  large  Buck  and  an  Elk  which  our  Hunters 
had  killed  behind,  camped  at  Black  Birds 
Hill,50  distance  15  Miles. 

Sunday  the  5th  fine  weather  at  8  A.  M.  came 
to  a  Channel51  which  we  entered,  in  hopes 

t9La  Coupe f  h,  Loiselle.  Brackenridge  says:  "This  name  orig- 
inated in  the  circumstance  of  a  trader  having  made  a  narrow  es- 
cape, being  in  the  river  at  the  very  moment  that  this  cut-off  was 
forming."  The  trader  here  referred  to  was  probably  Regis  Loisel,  who 
had  a  trading-post  on  Cedar  Island. 

6°Blackbird  Hill  was  named  for  a  celebrated  chief  of  the  Omahas,  who 
was  buried  on  this  hill.  Brackenridge  says  that  he  was  buried  sitting 
erect  on  his  horse,  and  chose  this  spot  as  the  place  of  his  interment, 
so  as  to  enable  him  to  see  the  traders  as  they  ascended  the  river.  This 
chief,  he  says,  was  famous  among  all  the  nations  in  this  part  of  the 
world,  and  his  grave  at  a  late  day  was  still  held  in  superstitious  awe. 
His  possession  of  some  arsenic,  received  from  a  trader,  was  the  secret 
of  his  greatness.  With  this  he  made  his  prophecies  of  death  against 
those  who  opposed  him  come  true  with  a  seemingly  magic  precision. 
Blackbird  died  about  1803.  This  bluff,  with  the  mound  surmounting 
it,  was  at  one  time  one  of  the  curiosities  of  the  Missouri  and  a  prom- 
inent landmark,  but  the  mound  has  now  almost  disappeared. 

"Tbs  is  an  illustration  of  the  shifting  of  the  river  bed.  While 
apparently  the  first  channel  attempted  was  an  incipient  cut-off,  the 
other  was  the  remains  of  a  portion  of  its  bed  which  the  river  had 

[1812]  47 

to  go  through,  to  cut  off  6 — Leagues  of  the 
River,  but  were  disappointed,  having  ascended 
within  150  yard  toward  the  head  of  it,  the 
Water  became  so  rapid  as  to  endanger  our 
Boats  to  sink,  we  returned  with  Difficulty, 
at  a  little  Distance  found  another,  which  was 
also  tried,  but  to  our  Sorrow  found  not  Wa- 
ter enough  at  the  head  and  returned  took 
the  old  Route,  and  were  stopped  at  5  P.  M. 
by  a  Thunderstorm,  distance  15  Miles. 

Monday,  the  6th  rained  very  hard  last  night, 
cleared  up  and  we  made  best  of  our  way  at. 
4.  oclock  in  the  Morning  had  a  few  Squalls 
and  rain,  at  8  A.  M.  a  fair  wind  arose  and 
had  fine  sailing  for  several  hours,  the  River 
very  crooked  had  to  row  at  times,  at  2.30 
M.  P.  M.  passed  Mohaw  River,52  and  oppo- 
site the  Village  at  4.  P.  M.  2  Men  went  to 
see  if  any  Indians  were  there,  they  returned 
not  being  able  to  gett  to  the  Village  on  a/0 
of  Swamp  and  Musquitos,  camped  on  a  Sand 
bar,  distance  30  Miles. 

Thuesday,  yth  started  at  Day  break,  cloudy, 
head  wind  and  rain,  in  the  afternoon  passed 
floyds.  River,53  Sun  River54  and  at  dark  Big 
Sioux  River,55  distance  18.  Miles. 

MMohaw,  Maha,  or  Omaha,  as  it  is  now  called;  a  good  mill  stream 
in  Dakota  County,  Nebraska.  The  Omaha  Indians  lived  on  this  stream. 

"Floyd's  River  was  named  to  commemorate  the  death  of  Sergeant 
Charles  Floyd,  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  exploring  party.  Floyd  died 
near  the  mouth  of  this  stream  on  August  20,  1804,  and  was  buried  on 
the  Bluffs,  which  also  bear  his  name,  just  below  the  site  of  Sioux  City. 

MNow  Perry  Creek,  named  for  Robert  Perry,  who  settled  on  it  in 
1849.  It  is  in  Sioux  City,  Iowa. 

"The  Big  Sioux  heads  near  the  source  of  the  Red  River  of  the  North. 

48  [1812] 

Wednesday  the  8.,  Head  wind  and  Rain,  hard 
work  all  Day  toward  Evening  had  some  sail- 
ing, camped  on  a  Sand  bar,56  Musquitos  in 
Clouds,  distance  18  Miles,  Killed  i  Deer. 

Thursday  the  9th  departed  early,  took  a  Chan- 
nel which  we  found  shut  up,  and  lost  the 
Morning,  at  Dinner  several  Hunters  went  out 
to  make  fires  to  give  Notice  to  the  Indians 
of  our  approach,  passed  a  small  River  named 
Iowa,57  in  the  afternoon  had  fine  sailing,  dis- 
tance 24  Miles,  Killed  i  Deer. 

friday  the  loth  Head  wind  and  strong  Current 
all  Day.  The  River  very  high,  left  5  Hunters 
on  shore, — distance  10  Miles  Killed  I  Deer. 

Saturday  the  II,  Rain  &  cloudy  Morning,  at 
8  A.  M.  cleared  up  with  a  fair  wind,  took  in 
our  hunters,  set  sail,  at  noon  waited  one  Hour 
for  the  little  Boat  passed  Vermillion  River58 
on  the  North  side  and  at  5  P.  M.  the  River 

It  meets  at  its  mouth  the  States  of  South  Dakota,  Nebraska,  and  Iowa, 
forming  the  boundary  between  Iowa  and  South  Dakota.  The  river 
is  called  on  Nicollet's  map  Tchankasndata,  which  name  is  said  to  mean 
that  the  river  is  continuously  wooded.  The  upper  part  was  also  dis- 
tinguished as  the  Watpa-ipak-shan,  or  crooked  river,  and  by  the  French 
as  La  Rivibre  Croc  he. 

"Lewis  and  Clark  camped  on  this  sand-bar  August  18,  1804,  and 
sent  a  detachment  under  Sergeant  Ordway  to  the  Omaha  village  with 
an  invitation  to  the  Indians  to  join  them  in  council  and  smoke  the 
pipe  of  peace. 

67Ayoway  Creek  on  Nicollet's  and  Missouri  River  Commission  maps, 
but  Iowa  on  present  maps.  It  is  in  Dixon  County,  Nebraska,  just 
above  the  Sjoth  mile  point  of  the  Missouri  River. 

58Vermillion  River,  called  by  Lewis  and  Clark  the  Whitestone  River. 
Indian  name  was  Wassisha,  literally  meaning  "smoky  earth."  It  runs 
through  Clay  County,  South  Dakota,  and  the  town  of  Vermillion  is 
at  its  mouth.  Vermillion  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri  River. 


Arck59  on  the  South  side  waited  for  the  little 
Boat  and  had  to  camp  before  Sunset  to  lett 
her  come  up  with  us,  lost  some  elegant  sailing 
on  her  account — distance  33  Miles. 

Sunday,  the  I2th.  set  sail  early  in  the  Morning 
and  by  all  appearances  were  to  make  a  good 
Days  Journey,  but  the  other  Boat  not  keep- 
ing up  with  us  we  were  obliged  to  wait  sev- 
eral hours  for  her,  and  lost  considerable  in 
making  way,  the  wind  changing  at  noon,  at 
8  A.  M.  passed  River  Jacques,60  Missouri  still 
very  high,  distance  18  M. 

Monday  the  I3th,  head  wind  and  hard  Current, 
rowed,  poled  and  cordelled  all  Day,  several 
hunters  went  out  they  returned  at  4  P.  M., 
no  game,  but  had  seen  many  fresh  track  of 
Elk,  waited  2  hours  for  the  other  Boat  at 
5  P.  M.  made  Island  of  Bonhomme61  and 

'The  Arck  is  referred  to  in  the  Journals  of  Lewis  and  Clark  as  "a 
small  creek  called  Petit  Arc,  or  Little  Bow,  and  a  short  distance  above 
it  an  old  village  of  the  same  name."  Nothing  remained  of  the  village 
then  but  a  mound  about  four  feet  high.  It  was  built  by  a  Maha 
(Omaha)  chief  named  Little  Bow,  who,  being  displeased  with  Black- 
bird, seceded  with  200  followers  and  settled  at  this  spot.  The  Indian 
name  of  this  creek  is  Hopa-wazhupi.  It  is  the  present  Bow  Creek  in 
Cedar  County,  Nebraska.  Vermillion  Post,  also  known  as  Dickson 
Post,  was  established  prior  to  1835,  opposite  the  mouth  of  Bow  Creek 
in  Clay  County,  South  Dakota. 

*°Jacques,  or  James  River,  as  it  is  now  called,  rises  in  a  prairie  just 
south  of  Devil's  Lake  in  Wells  and  Foster  counties,  North  Dakota, 
and  flows  nearly  due  south  into  the  Missouri.  The  town  of  Yankton, 
South  Dakota,  is  just  above  its  mouth.  The  French  called  this  river 
Riviere  a  Jacques. 

•lBonhomme  is  a  large  island  between  Bonhomme  County,  South 
Dakota  and  Knox  County,  Nebraska.  There  is  also  a  town  bearing 
this  name  in  South  Dakota.  The  journals  of  Lewis  and  Clark,  as  well 
as  Brackenridge,  mention  the  ruins  of  an  "ancient  fortification"  on 
this  island.  They  were  really  natural  formations,  being  simply  sand 

So  [1812] 

Ponca  Country62  we  had  flattered  ourselves 
to  meet  some  Indians  or  Buffaloe  but  were 
disappointed,  by  this  time  we  had  passed  the 
Countries  of  the  following  Nations,  Little  and 
Big  Osage,63  Mahas,64  Soto,65  Yenctons66  & 

ridges  formed  by  the  river — the  banks  are  low  and  subject  to  overflow. 
(See  "Lewis  and  Clark  and  the  Antiquities  of  the  Upper  Missouri 
River,"  by  T.  H.  Lewis,  in  Amer.  Antiq.  and  Orient.  Jour.,  Sept.,  1891, 
p.  288.) 

62The  Poncas  of  the  Siouan  family.  In  historic  days  they,  together 
with  the  Omahas,  Kansas,  and  Osages,  formed  a  single  tribe,  dwelling, 
in  the  Ohio  Valley  near  the  Wabash  River.  After  the  migration  west- 
ward and  the  separation  which  followed,  the  Poncas  located  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Niobrara.  "In  physical  characteristics  and  in  tribal  cus- 
toms the  Poncas  resembled  their  kindred,  the  Omahas.  They  had  been 
oppressed  through  many  years  by  the  Sioux,  and  reduced  by  the  small- 
pox, until  when  the  traders  came  they  numbered  but  little  more  than 
200  souls.  They  were  always  on  friendly  terms  with  the  whites,  and 
a  regular  trading-post  was  maintained  in  their  territory."  (Chitten- 
den,  History  of  the  American  Fur  Trade  of  the  Far  West.)  The  exclus- 
ive right  to  trade,  for  ten  years,  with  the  Poncas  had  been  given  by 
the  Spanish  Government  to  Jean  Baptiste  Monier,  of  St.  Louis,  in 
consideration  of  the  fact  that  he  had  discovered  and  pacified  that 
tribe  in  1789.  The  Poncas  had  a  reservation  in  Indian  Territory  and 
one  in  Nebraska.  In  1906  their  total  population  was  about  833. 
Their  lands  have  been  allotted  to  them  in  severalty. 

"The  Osage  Indians  were  the  most  important  of  the  southern 
Siouan.  They  were  also  the  first  in  the  Missouri  Valley  to  have  a  reg- 
ular trade  with  the  whites.  On  Father  Marquette's  map,  1673,  this  tribe 
is  located  on  the  Osage  River.  About  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth 
century  a  division  was  made  in  the  tribe,  the  Great,  or  Big,  Osages  going 
farther  up  the  Osage  River.  This  branch  became  known  as  Pe-he-si — 
that  is  to  say,  "campers  on  the  mountains";  and  the  Little  Osages  as 
U-tsth-ta,  or  "campers  in  the  lowlands."  Later  there  was  another  divis- 
ion, known  as  the  Arkansas  Osages.  This  separation  was  due  to  Manuel 
Lisa's  obtaining  from  the  Spanish  Government,  in  1796,  a  monopoly  to 
trade  with  Osage  Indians.  For  twenty  years  previously  this  monopoly 
was  under  the  control  of  Pierre  Chouteau,  who  had  great  influence  with 
the  Osages.  After  Lisa  secured  this  exclusive  privilege,  Chouteau  in- 
duced the  best  hunters  of  both  the  Big  and  Little  Osage  clans  to  go 
with  him  to  the  Verdigris  River  in  Arkansas,  where  he  had  the  trade 
privilege.  When  General  Pike  went  up  the  Osage  River  in  1806,  he 
found  the  principal  Osage  villages  near  the  junction  of  the  Marmiton 
and  the  Little  Osage  River.  There  was  also  a  village  on  the  Marais 
des  Cygnes,  a  few  miles  from  the  present  town  of  Papinsville,  Bates 
County,  Mo.  In  1815  the  Osages  began  moving  westward  from  their 



Kanzas,  this  Morning  Immel  &  Lorimier67 
went  a  head  by  Land,  all  hunters  went  on 
the  Island,  but  Killed  but  I  Elk,  two  of  them 
camped  on  the  N:  Side  and  the  Boats  on  the 
South  Side  of  the  Island,  distance  18  Miles. 

villages  in  Bates  and  Vernon  counties  and  located  on  the  Neosho.  In 
January,  1823,  there  appeared  in  the  Missouri  Intelligencer  the  following: 
"The  Osages  of  the  Great  nation  contemplate  abandoning  their  village 
on  the  Osage  and  intend  removing  next  spring  to  the  Arkansas  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  Little  Osages.  In  consequence  of  this  the  Harmony 
Missionary  Society,  established  on  the  Osage  River  not  far  from  the 
Missouri,  are  removing  across  to  the  Arkansas." 

The  Osages  were  a  brave  and  warlike  people,  and  usually  at  war 
with  the  neighboring  tribes.  Although  generally  friendly  toward  the 
whites,  the  Santa  Fe  traders  found  them  undesirable  to  meet,  as  they 
never  hesitated  to  plunder  and  kill  small  trading  parties. 

MThe  Omaha  Indians  (usually  called  Mahas),  one  of  the  tribes  of 
the  great  Siouan  family,  formerly  lived  on  the  Mississippi  River,  and 
constituted  at  one  time  one  of  the  most  powerful  tribes  of  that  stock. 
They  lived  for  a  period  in  Iowa,  ranging  as  far  north  as  the  pipestone 
quarry,  now  the  town  of  Pipestone,  Minnesota.  They  were  driven 
back  by  the  Dakotas,  and  after  separating  from  the  Poncas  they  set- 
tled on  Bow  Creek,  in  Nebraska.  Lewis  and  Clark  found  them  on  the 
westerly  side  of  the  Missouri,  a  little  south  of  Dakota  City,  Neb.,  and 
they  numbered  then  less  than  600,  having  been  decimated  in  1802  by 
an  epidemic  of  smallpox.  They  were  constantly  at  war  with  the  Sioux. 
The  population  of  the  tribe  in  1906  was  1,228.  This  tribe  is  among 
the  most  civilized  of  the  Indians. 

85The  Otoes  belong  to  the  Siouan  tribe,  and  lived  on  the  Missouri  and 
Platte  rivers  for  many  years.  In  1880  they  were  given  reservations 
in  Indian  Territory.  Tradition  has  it  that  in  ancient  times  they  lived 
about  the  Great  Lakes  under  the  name  of  Hotonga,  migrating  to  the 
southwest,  in  pursuit  of  buffalo;  later  they  divided  into  various  tribes, 
known  as  Winnebago,  Iowa,  Missouri,  and  Otoe. 

The  Yanktons  lived  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  Sioux  territory 
along  the  Missouri  river  in  the  valleys  of  the  James,  the  Vermillion, 
and  the  Big  Sioux,  and  even  as  far  east  as  the  headwaters  of  the 
Des  Moines.  They  numbered  about  1,000  people.  They  were  the 
least  troublesome  of  all  the  Sioux  tribes  and  gave  the  traders  com- 
paratively little  annoyance.  Posts  were  maintained  at  different 
times  for  their  convenience  at  the  mouth  of  each  of  the  tributaries 
of  the  Missouri  mentioned  above.  (Chittenden's  History  of  the 
American  Fur  Trade.) 

The  Yankton  and  Yanktonais  tribes  were  no  doubt  originally  one 
group.  (Hodge's  Handbook  of  American  Indians.) 

67Louis  Lorimier,  born  in  1785  near  Cape  Girardeau,  Missouri,  was 
the  son  and  name-sake  of  the  first  settler  and  commandant  of  the 


Thuesday.  the  I4th  fine  weather  head  wind  and 
hard  water  at  7  A.  M.  took  in  our  hunters 
they  had  killed  i  Elk  I  Deer,  had  to  stop 
again  at  9  A.  M.  to  arrange  another  Mast 
for  the  other  Boat  and  fix  the  old  Rudder, 
crossed  the  River  where  we  found  some  fine 
Cedar  for  the  Purpose,  stayed  all  day  un- 
loaded and  loaded,  put  up  the  Mast  and 
Rudder,  camped  and  made  this  Day  4  Miles 
distance  Killed  i  Deer. 

Wednesday  July  15,  made  an  early  start  and 
good  way  at  9  A.  M.  met  the  Company  Boat 
coming  from  the  Rees68  with  Peltries,  Papin69 
and  5  Men.  Mr.  Manuel  Lisa  thought  proper 

Post  of  Cape  Girardeau  under  the  Government  of  Spain,  and  Char- 
lotte Pemanpieh  Bougainville,  a  half-blood  Shawnee.  The  Lorimiers, 
the  elder  a  native  of  Canada,  were  undoubtedly  descendants  of  Gnil- 
laume  de  Lorimier,  a  native  of  Paris  who  came  to  Canada  in  1695. 
Louis  Lorimier,  Jr.,  married,  October  14,  1816,  Margaret  Penny,  grand- 
daughter of  Anthony  Bled?oe,  and  lived  on  a  farm  not  far  from  Cape 
Girardeau.  He  was  appointed,  by  President  Jefferson,  to  the  United 
States  Military  Academy,  July  17,  1804,  and  was  graduated  November 
14,  1806.  On  January  20,  1808,  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  sec- 
ond lieutenant,  and  served  on  the  western  frontier  until  December  31, 
1809,  when  he  resigned.  In  1816  he  was  a  trader  among  the  Shawnees 
and  Delawares  on  the  Castor  River  near  Bloomfield,  in  what  is  now 
Stoddard  County,  Missouri,  succeeding  his  father  in  the  trade  with 
the  Indians.  He  died  on  his  farm  in  1832. 

"Arikara,  the  accepted  spelling,  commonly  called  the  Rees  and 
Rickarees.  They  belonged  to  the  northern  group  of  the  Caddoan  lin- 
guistic family.  "In  1770  French  traders  established  relations  with  the 
Ankara,  below  Cheyenne  River  on  the  Missouri.  Lewis  and  Clark 
found  them  living  in  three  villages  between  the  Grand  and  the  Cannon 
Ball  rivers,  and  found  them  disposed  to  be  friendly  to  the  United 
States."  (Hodge's  Handbook  of  American  Indians.}  About  the  be- 
ginning of  the  nineteenth  century  they  became  the  allies  of  the  Mandan 
and  Hidatsa  Indians,  and  in  1880  joined  these  tribes  on  their  reservation 
near  Fort  Berthold.  Twenty  years  later  they  became  citizens  of  the 
United  States.  In  early  days  they  lived  in  earth  lodges  and  cultivated 
the  soil.  The  remains  of  their  fortified  villages  were  found  by  early 
travellers  on  the  Missouri  from  the  mouth  of  the  Teton  to  the  Mandans. 
There  is  an  interesting  account  of  this  tribe  in  the  Journal  of  Jtan  B. 

[i8i2]  53 

to  take  her  back  again  having  not  sufficient 
Loading  to  defray  the  expense,  passed  River 
Luipere70  and  another  small  River,71  in  the 
afternoon  Squalls  and  Rain,  camped  3  Miles 
below  Leauquicour  River,72  distance  16  Miles. 

Thursday  16  July,  rained  all  night,  and  cleared 

Trudeau  among  the  Arikara  Indians  in  1795  (Mo.  Hist.  Soc.  Col.  4:9). 

PAPIN,  familiarly 
known  as  Leber 
Papin,  was  born  in 
St.  Louis,  Decem- 
ber 24,  1787,  being 
the  third  son  of 
Joseph  M.  and 
Marie  Louise  (Chouteau)  Papin.  On  July  14, 1815,  he  married  Joseph- 
ine Loisel,  daughter  of  Regis  Loisel,  fur  trader  and  merchant,  who 
had  a  trading-house  on  an  island  in  the  Upper  Missouri  River,  at  a 
place  which  became  known  as  Fort  aux  Cedres.  Loisel  received  from 
the  Spanish  Government  a  grant  of  150,000  arpents  at  that  point. 

Ten  children  were  born  to  Leber  Papin  and  his  wife;  namely:  Hy- 
polite;  Joseph  L.;  Pierre  M.;  Theodore;  Raymond;  Eugene;  Edmond; 
Louise,  who  married  Eugene  Duprd;  EmiUe,  who  married  James  C. 
Waugh;  Zoe,  who  married  Edward  N.  Tracy;  and  Josephine,  who 
married  Robert  C.  Grier. 

Leber  Papin,  with  his  brother  Sylvestre,  was  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  hardware  and  fire-arms  for  the  Indian  trade,  in  preparation 
for  which  his  father  had  sent  him  to  Philadelphia  to  study  the  methods 
of  the  factories  from  which  the  trading  companies  of  St.  Louis  had 
theretofore  drawn  their  supplies.  He  furnished  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany and  the  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs  at  St.  Louis  with  tools 
and  equipment  for  many  years.  The  factory  was  on  Main  and  Pine 
Streets,  which  was  closed  by  Leber  Papin,  after  the  death  of  his  brother 
Sylvestre.  Leber  Papin  then  retired  to  his  farm,  where  he  died  De- 
cember 20,  1842,  leaving  a  large  fortune  for  that  period.  Many  of 
his  living  descendants  are  representative  St.  Louisans,  as  he  was  in 
his  day. 

"White  Lime  Creek  of  Lewis  and  Clark's  map,  and  Lost  Creek  of 
the  Missouri  River  Commission  map. 

TiWhite  Paint  Creek  of  Lewis  and  Clark;  L'Eau  qui  Monte  of  P. 
du  Lac;  Wasiska  of  Nicollet.  It  is  now  known  as  Bazile  Creek.  It 
flows  into  the  Missouri  in  Knox  County,  Nebraska. 

nUEau  qui  Court  (i^uicourre — "rapid  water,"  "running  water"),  now 
called  the  Niobrara,  has  its  source  in  eastern  Wyoming  about  twenty- 


up  at  Sunrise  at  8  A.  M.  passed  Leauquicour 
River  very  high  and  full.  Mess  Sanguinett75 
£  Bijou  went  out  to  make  fires  as  we  expected 
the  Indians  soon  to  meet,  camped  opposite 
an  Island74  not  far  from  Ponca  River,75  dis- 
tance 1 8  Miles  Killed  I  Deer. 

friday  the  17,  a  fine  Morning  the  Mackina  Boat 
took  5  hunters  to  the  Island  and  we  contin- 
ued our  Route  passed  Ponca  River,  cordelled 
on  the  South  Side  along  the  Hills  till  Dinner, 
the  Boat  came  up  and  brought  I  Deer  I 
Beaver  cordelled  all  Afternoon  distance  17 

Saturday  18,  cloudy  about  8  A.  M.  a  fine  favor- 
able wind  took  us  and  we  had  good  sailing 
untile  2  oclock  P.  M.  when  we  discovered 
3  Lodges  of  Sioux  Indians76  and  found  Immel 

five  miles  north  of  Fort  Laramie,  and  flows  easterly  across  northern 
Nebraska.  The  current,  as  its  name  implies,  is  very  rapid. 

7aFor  a  sketch  of  Charles  Sanguinet,  fils,  see  Appendix. 

74Pawnee  Island,  in  Knox  County,  Nebraska.  The  camp  of  this 
day  was  probably  near  Chouteau  Bluffs  in  Bonhomme  County,  South 

76Ponca  Creek,  a  prairie  stream  rising  in  eastern  Tripp  County  and 
running  north  of  and  parallel  with  the  Niobrara.  It  derives  its  name 
from  an  Indian  tribe  which  had  a  fortified  village  on  this  river  for 
some  time.  They  subsequently  resided  with  the  Omahas. 

76T  ie  Sioux,  or  Dakotas,  belong  to  the  Siouan  family,  the  most 
populous  linguistic  family,  excepting  the  Algonquian,  north  of  Mexico. 
The  word  Sioux  is  an  abbreviation  of  Nadowessioux,  a  French  corrup- 
tion of  Nadowe-is-izv,  the  appellation  given  them  by  the  Chippewas. 
It  signifies  "snake,"  "adder,"  suggesting  "enemy."  When  the  French 
traders  first  met  them,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
their  country  embraced  what  is  now  the  State  of  South  Dakota, 
with  contiguous  territory  all  around  its  borders.  Their  wanderings 
extended  far  beyond  their  own  lands.  This  tribe  was  among  the 
most  warlike  of  the  western  tribes,  and,  although  they  at  no  one  time 
exceeded  15,000  souls  in  the  Missouri  Valley,  they  were  everywhere 


&  Lorimier,  the  Chief  of  them  LeNe?.77  traded 
with  us  32  Beaver  3  Otter  2  Robes  13  Blad- 
ders of  tallow  and  upwards  of  300  Ib.  Dried 
meat,  camped  I  Mile  above  them,  Killed  I 
Deer  distance  24  Miles. 

Sunday  the  I9th  fine  Morning  about  7  A.  M. 
we  took  in  2  Sioux  who  had  been  hunting, 
belonging  to  a  band  on  white  River,78  gave 
us  a  buffaloe  tongue  and  stayed  on  Board 
all  Day,  our  hunters  went  in  search  of  Buf- 
faloe but  found  none,  passed  Little  Cedar 
Island,79  distance  18  Miles. 

Monday  the  20,  set 'sail  at  4  in  the  Morning 
with  a  fine  wind  the  Indians  left  us,  sailed 
till  10  A.  M.  when  the  wind  changed  and 
blew  hard  a  head,  at  4  P.  M.  met  with  a 
Sioux  Chief  called  the  Sleeper80  and  20  Soldier 
had  some  talk  and  camped  with  them,  distance 
15  Miles. 

held  in  terror  by  their  enemies.  They  were  men  of  great  physical 
powers,  and  great  hunters. 

The  three  important  divisions  of  the  Sioux  tribes  in  the  Missouri 
Valley  were:  the  Yanktons,  the  Yantonais,  and  the  Tetons.  When 
Luttig  mentions  the  Sioux  Indians  or  chiefs,  he  doubtless  refers  to  one 
of  these  branches.  During  the  War  of  1812  some  Sioux  were  on  the 
point  of  joining  the  British  forces  against  the  United  States. 

77 Le  Nez  was  known  by  western  Sioux  as  Pasu  Ksapa,  and  was 
prominent  in  the  same  way  that  "The  Sleeper"  was.  (Dr.  A.  McG. 
Beede,  Missionary  at  Fort  Yates,  North  Dakota.) 

78White  River,  or  White  Earth  River,  rises  in  the  northwestern  cor- 
ner of  Nebraska,  south  of  the  Black  Snake  Hills,  enters  South  Dakota, 
and,  running  easterly,  empties  into  the  Missouri  in  Lyman  County. 
The  route  of  travel  between  Forts  Pierre  and  Laramie  was  through  the 
valley  of  this  river. 

"Little  Cedar  Island  in  Gregory  County,  South  Dakota.  The  Mis- 
souri Fur  Company  had  a  trading-post  here,  which  was  destroyed  by 
fire  in  April,  1810. 

""The  Sleepert"Istinhmunma  (meaning  "to  possess  the  mystic  gift")* 


Thuesday  the  21,  departed  at  Sunrise  as  also  the 
Indians  we  stopped  at  a  small  River81  where 
4  Sioux  Chiefs  came  to  us,  the  Black  Sky, 
Black  Buffaloe,82  Big  Horse83  and  Crooked 
hand,84  we  had  Council  and  they  informed 
Mr  Manuel  Lisa,  that  at  present  they  had 
nothing  to  trade,  but  would  have  plenty  next 
fall  Immel  went  with  them  to  their  Village, 
3  Chiefs  and  2  young  Men  remained  to  fix 
on  a  spot  for  a  trading  house  they  went  with 
us  across  the  River  to  the  North'Side  I  Mile 
below  where  we  had  camped,  laid  out  the 
house  for  Mr.  Bijou85  who  was  to  remain  to 
trade  with  the  Yentonas,  Tetons86  and  Shau- 
nee,87  Mr  Manuel  presented  the  Chief  with  10 
Carrots  Tobacco  and  some  Powder  and  Ball 
they  were  seemingly  well  contented,  Killed 
I  Buffaloe  and  the  Indians  brought  also  some 
fresh  Meat. 

a  Teton  ^Sioux  Indian.  He  was  an  Itancan,  but  to  what  extent  he  was 
a  "chief"  is  hard  to  say.  This  Indian  was  conspicuous  among  Western 
Sioux,  and  has  been  frequently  confused  with  the  Minnesota  "Sleepy 
Eyes."  The  Sioux  Indians  frequently  sent  out  emissaries  to  other  nibes, 
on  various  pretexts,  but  as  spies  really.  Some  went  as  beggars,  pre- 
tending that  their  people  were  starving  and  that  they  left  in  an  effort 
to  keep  alive;  others  claimed  to  have  been  unjustly  ostracized.  "The 
Sleeper"  seems  to  have  been  a  master  spy.  (Dr.  Becde.) 

8lThis  small  river  is  the  Shannon  Creek  on  Clark's  and  Maximilian's 
maps.  It  was  probably  named  for  George  Shannon.  It  is  now  called 
Rosebud  Creek,  and  is  near  Rosebud  Landing,  Gregory  County,  South 

«*Black  Buffalo,  a  Teton  Sioux,  died  in  July,  1815,  at  Portage  de* 
Sioux,  St.  Charles  County,  Missouri,  while  attending  the  Peace  Treaty 
Council  at  that  place.  At  the  request  of  Gen.  Clark  he  was  interred 
with  military  honors.  The  funeral  oration  delivered  by  the  chief, 
Big  Elk,  was  a  touching  and  eloquent  one.  Black'  Buffalo  was  a  man 
of  considerable  influence.  He  was  the  principal  chief  with  whom  Lewis 
and  Clark  counciled  at  the  mouth  of  the  Teton,  September  25  to  28, 
1804,  leading,  after  some  difficulty,  to  the  establishment  of  friendly 



Wednesday  the  22d  rose  early,  all  hands  except 
some  lazy  Rascals  under  pretence  of  being 

relations.  In  1807  he  was  in  the  Ankara  village,  and  no  doubt  took 
part  in  the  attack  on  Lieut.  Nathaniel  Pryor's  party,  which  was  escort- 
ing the  Mandan  chief  Sheheke  back  to  his  village.  Black  Buffalo  was 
dangerously  wounded  in  this  skirmish.  At  the  head  of  a  party  of 
Dakotas  he  met  the  Astorians  at  Big  Bend  in  1811  and  protested 
against  the  carrying  of  arms  to  the  Arikaras  andMandans,  with  whom 
his  tribes  were  then  at  war.  Manuel  Lisa  found  him  a  powerful  influ- 
ence in  the  way  of  keeping  the  Dakotas  friendly  with  the  United  States 
during  the  War  of  1812,  and  at  the  close  of  the  war  brought  him  down 
to  Portage  des  Sioux. 

83Big  Horse  was  an  Oglala  chief  of  the  same  family  as  the  two  well- 
known  chieis  called  "American  Horse,"  but  whether  he  was  the  father 
or  uncle  of  the  elder  American  Horse,  or  a  remote  kinsman,  I  am  unable 
to  say.  He  was  prominent  among  Indians  during  the  times  when  the 
road  was  being  forced,  with  little  progress,  from  the  Platte  River 
northwest.  (Dr.  Beede.) 

84Crooked  Hand.  This  man  might  have  been  Bras  CassS  or  Broken 
Arm,  who  was  in  council  with  Gen.  Pike  in  1805.  His  Indian  name 
was  Wah-kan-tah-pay,  and  he  was  living  in  1825  at  his  village  near 
Le  Sueur  in  Minnesota. 

Dr.  Beede  says  he  has  often  heard  Crooked  Hand  mentioned  as  a 
sort  of  mentor  of  Inkpe  Luta,  though  he  did  not  participate  with  him 
in  the  Spirit  Lake  Massacre.  Every  ambitious  youth  had  a  sort  of 
mentor  in  some  one  particular  man  of  his  voluntary  choice,  who  more 
or  less  shaped  his  mind  and  career;  and  Crooked  Hand  was  thus  the 
mentor  of  Inkpe  Luta  (a  somewhat  misrepresented  and  misunderstood 
man),  who  was  well  known  by  many  Western  Sioux.  He  was  an 
Itancan,  but  it  is  difficult  to  say  whether  or  not  he  was  a  "chief."  He 
was  said  to  have  been  an  expert  bowman. 

"Bijou's  trading-house  was  doubtless  in  the  vicinity  of  the  present 
Bijou  Hills  post-office,  in  Brule  County,  South  Dakota. 

"The  Teton  Sioux  were  a  very  important  division  of  the  Sioux,  and 
dwelt  mostly  west  of  the  Missouri,  covering  the  country  as  far  west 
as  the  Black  Hills  and  the  North  Platte,  wandering  north  and  south 
from  the  Pawnee  country  to  the  Mandans.  These  Indians  were  very 
troublesome  in  the  eaily  days  of  the  fur  trade,  and  were  known  as  the 
pirates  of  the  Missouri  River.  In  later  years  they  became  friendly  with 
the  whites  and  gave  the  traders  very  little  trouble.  There  were  sev- 
eral bands  of  the  Tetons,  viz.:  the  Bois  Brutes,  who  lived  on  both  side* 
of  the  Missouri  near  the  mouths  of  the  White  and  Teton  rivers;  the 
Sans  Arcs;  the  Blackfeet;  the  Minneconjous;  the  Two  Kettles;  the 
Oglalas,  who  dwelt  at  the  headwaters  of  the  White  and  Niobrara  rivers; 
and  the  Hunkpapas. 

"The  Saone  Indians  were  a  division  of  the  Teton  Sioux,  comprising 
the  Sans  Arcs,  Sihasapa,  Ooheneonpa,  and  sometimes  the  Hunkpapa. 


sick  went  to  work. — at  3  P.  M.  Immel  re- 
turned with  2  young  Indians,  the  Chief  Black 
Sky  had  presented  him  a  horse,  he  reported 
the  Chiefs  and  warriors  would  be  with  us  to 
morrow — he  found  upwards  of  400  Lodges 
and  plenty  of  Buffaloe  in  the  Morning  when 
he  started  from  there  he  saw  several  Buffaloe 
enter  in  the  Village,  this  Day  raised  part  of 
the  house,  Killed  i  Deer,  caught  several  Cat- 
fish and  I  Beaver. 

Thursday  the  23,  early  to  work,  but  unfortunaly 
the  house  fell  down  when  nearly  raised,  and 
had  to  go  over  the  same  work,  catched  7  fine 
fish  in  the  forenoon  which  provided  a  fine 
Dinner,  at  5  P.  M.  a  party  of  Indians  came 
opposite  which  we  crossed  and  found  them 
to  be  all  Boys  about  30  in  Number  they  cama 
to  give  us  a  Dance,  they  were  all  neat  and 
handsome  clothed,  more  so  then  I  saw  the 
Sioux  of  the  Mississippi,  in  the  Evening  they 
danced  and  we  gave  them  some  Biscuit  and 
I  Carrot  Tobacco  they  brought  plenty  Meat 
with  them  and  gave  plenty  to  the  Boats. 

friday  the  24th  finished  the  house,  in  the  after- 
noon sent  Mr.  Bijou,  Equipment  on  shore, 
the  Indians  went  over  the  River,  and  Mr 
Manuel  Lisa  gave  the  Chief  black  Buffaloe 

They  were  first  mentioned  by  Lewis  and  Clark,  and,  under  the  form 
Souon-Teton  in  Clark's  manuscripts,  where  they  are  called  "the  people 
of  the  prairie."  They  made  one  of  the  twelve  tribes  of  the  Dakota, 
while  the  Souon  were  another.  The  Saone,  under  the  name  Siount, 
joined  the  Oglalas  in  the  treaty  with  the  United  States  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Teton  River,  South  Dakota,  July  5,  1825.  (Hodge,  Handbook  of 
American  Indians.) 

[1812]  59 

the  present  from  Government  as  also  for 
crooked  hand  which  Chief  had  promised  to 
come  over  but  did  not  come,  he  left  it  with 
Mr.  Bijou  to  be  given  to  him  whenever  he 
would  arrive  there  left  2  hunters  and  3  En- 
gagees  with  Bijou,  discharged  Bapt.  Alar88  a 
good  for  nothing  fellow. 

Saturday  the  25,  set  sail  at  4  in  the  Morning 
fair  wind  took  6  Indians  with  us  which  we 
landed  and  stood  under  sail  till  n  A.  M. 
when  we  took  the  Cordell  for  about  i  hour, 
dined,  and  set  sail  again,  passed  white  River 
at  2  P.  M.  the  [wind]  slakening  about  4  P.  M. 
we  took  to  Cordell  again,  Mr.  Manuels  Negro 
Boy  Charlo  went  out  the  Boat  to  gett  some 
grass  or  grasshoppers  for  a  Prairie  Dog  which 
he  had  caught  some  days  ago,  he  the  Boy 
went  upon  the  Hills  unperceived,  they  are 
very  high,  he  fell  down  a  precipe  into  the 
River,  the  Man  who  was  steering  the  Mackina 

MBaptiste  Alar.  This  name  is  spelled  in  American  State  Papers 
"Alary,"  "Alere,"  "Allard,"  and  "Allare/'  In  the  archives  of  St. 
Louis  City  and  County  it  has  only  two  variations,  "Alar"  and  "Allard." 
Baptiste  Alar  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1795  and  settled  in  Florissant,  St. 
Louis  County.  Prairie  du  Rocher  was  probably  his  former  home,  as 
there  was  a  Jean  Baptiste  Alard,  senior  and  junior,  in  the  census  of 
that  village  in  1787.  In  1818  Alar  was  engaged  by  the  American  Fur 
Company  as  a  boatman  to  serve  for  three  years  at  Prairie  du  Chien. 
At  the  end  of  this  period  he  returned  to  Florissant,  bought  some  land, 
upon  which  he  erected  a  home.  He  was  living  there  in  1825.  He  had 
two  children — one  named  Julia,  born  December  n,  1816,  whose  moth- 
er was  Julia  Laviolette;  and  the  other,  John  B. — by  Catherine  Lavio- 
lette.  John  B.  Alar,  Jr.,  married  at  Cahokia,  April  28,  1818,  Louise 
Desmarets,  the  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Julia  (Lepage)  Desmarets.  In 
May,  1846,  the  public  administrator  of  St.  Louis  took  charge  of  the 
property  of  Jean  Baptiste  Alar,  deceased.  As  no  heirs  were  found, 
he  property  was  paid  into  the  State  treasury  in  December,  1849. 

6o  [1812] 

Boat  saw  it,  and  cried  out  to  Mr  Lewis89  (who 
was  walking  in  the  Rear  of  the  Boats)  to  save 
the  Boy  but  Mr  Lewis  unfortunately  did  not 
understand  the  men  however  saw  something 
struggling  in  the  water,  but  thought  the  Boy 
was  a  swimming,  when  the  Men  came  towards 
him,  they  went  to  find  the  Boy,  alas  he  was 
gone,  he  must  have  been  stunned  by  the  fall 
or  otherwise  would  have  saved  himself,  the 
River  was  not  4  feet  deep,  he  drowned  at 
5  oclock  P.  M.  we  searched  for  him  some 
time  but  the  Current  had  swept  him  off,  cor- 
delled  a  little  way,  crossed  to  an  Island,  set 
out  3  hunters,  at  sunset  the  Wind  fair,  set 
sail,  took  in  our  hunters,  camped  on  a  Sand 
bar  the  wind  blowing  fresh  all  night  distance 
30  Miles. 

Sunday  the  26,  set  sail  at  3  in  the  Morning,  at 
8  A.  M.  Immel  &  Queenville90  went  out  to 

"For  a  sketch  of  Reuben  Lewis,  see  Appendix. 


tfljf»  in  St.  Charles,  Missouri.    In 

/    COMJt/M/Ht/St/M&S  June>  I8l4,  he  gave  his  note 

'  /y  /  ^1  to  Mr.  Francois  Duquette, 

V         I  to  be  paid  upon  his  return 

from  a  trapping  voyage.  The 

next  record  I  find  of  him  is  with  the  American  Fur  Company's  Post  in 
southwestern  Missouri.  He  seems  to  have  spent  the  remainder  of  his 
life  in  that  section.  He  married  Wihethtanga,  an  Osage  woman,  and 
of  this  marriage  there  is  record  of  the  following  children:  Francois, 
born  about  1819;  Pierre,  born  about  1822,  baptized  at  Harmony  Mis- 
sion, August  21,  1827;  Angelique,  born  October  10,  1826;  Andrl,  born 
about  November  5,  1829,  and  baptized  nearMarais  desCygnes,  June  9, 
1830;  and  Elizabeth,  who  married  August  10,  1840,  at  the  American 
Fur  Company's  trading-post  on  the  Osage  River,  Jean  Baptiste  St. 
Michel.  There  was  a  trapper  of  this  name  with  the  Spanish  Com- 
pany in  1794.  As  he  was  referred  to  as  "Sieur  Quenville,"  by  Jean 
Baptiste  Trudeau,  there  is  no  way  of  determining  that  he  is  the  same 
man  of  this  expedition. 

[1812]  6i 

hunt  and  to  visit  his  house  were  he  lived  last 
Winter,91  we  came  up  with  the  house  very 
fast,  stopped  a  few  Minutes  the  wind  fresh 
in  our  favor,  took  in  Immel,  Queenviile  had 
run  after  some  Buifaloe,  we  went  pretty  fast 
and  were  obliged  to  stop  for  Queenviile,  who 
was  far  behind  we  gave  him  signal,  and  em- 
barked him,  he  had  killed  i  buifaloe  but  we 
left  the  Meat,  taking  care  of  the  wind  at  I 
P.  M.  made  Big  Bend,92  camped  on  the  North 
Side. — Distance  36  Miles. 

Monday  the  2yth  departed  at  4  in  the  Morning 
a  fresh  wind  sprung  up  and  carried  us  out  of 
the  Bend,  the  wind  slackening  we  had  to 
take  to  our  oars,  at  8  A.  M.  we  set  sail  again 
and  sailed  till  II  A.  M.,  after  Dinner  Immel 
Lorimier  and  Greenwood  went  out  the  Boat 
to  go  by  Land  to  the  Rees.  cordelled  all  af- 
ternoon, and  camped  at  the  point  of  Cedar 
Island,93  distance  21  Miles.  Killed  i  Deer. 

Thuesday  the  28rh,  set  sail  with  a  favorable  wind 
at  3:30  minutes  in  the  Morning,  but  the  wind 
failing  had  to  take  to  cordelling,  last  night 

91Lisa  called  Immel-'s  wintering  place  Fort  St.  Michel  chez  des  Sioux. 
It  is  doubtful  on  which  side  of  the  river  this  trading-house  was  lo- 
cated, and  therefore  it  may  have  been  either  in  Lyman  or  Buffalo 
County,  South  Dakota.  Lisa  probably  named  it  in  honor  of  the  patron 
saint  of  his  efficient  lieutenant,  Michael  (Michel)  Immell. 

MBig  Bend  was  also  known  as  the  Grand  Detour  and  the  Great 
Bend.  The  camp  of  this  night  was  in  what  is  now  Hyde  County,  South 

"Cedar  Island  is  a  name  that  was  applied  to  various  islands, 
miles  apart,  in  this  portion  of  the  river.  This  particular  one,  near 
Cedar  Creek,  is  indicated  as  "Cedar  or  Dorien  Island  No.  i"  on  the 
Missouri  River  map  of  1895.  It  was  on  this  island  that  Regis  Loisel 
built  a  four-bastion  fort  of  red  cedar  in  1800. 


caught  3  Beavers,  Killed  i  Cabri94  2  Elks, 
distance  18  Miles. 

Wednesday  the  2Qth  head  wind  and  clear,  cor- 
deliing  all  day  at  4  P.M.  passed  little  Missouri 
River,95  killed  i  Buffaloe,  2  Deer,  i  Badger, 
distance  21  Miles. 

Thursday  the  3Oth  fine  weather  but  head  wind, 
had  to  cordell  all  Day  saw  a  band  of  about  50 
a  60  Elk,  3  of  them  close  to  us  in  the  River, 
but  had  no  luck  to  Kill  the  Mackina  Boat 
was  gone  a  head  with  the  hunters  and  did 
not  come  to  our  Camp  that  night,  distance 
1 8  Miles. 

Friday  the3ist  departed  early  cloudy  and  head 
wind  cordelled  all  Morning  at  7  A.  M.  met 
the  Mackina  Boat  they  had  Killed  2  Deer 
and  i  fawn,  crossed  the  River  after  break- 
fast the  wind  becoming  very  hard  made  very 
little  way.  Killed  i  Buffaloe  4  Deer,  dis- 
tance 12  Miles.  This  Morning  we  left  our 
old  she  Cat  at  Camp,  at  breakfast  I  missed 
her,  and  Mr.  Manuel  sent  a  Men  for  the  Cat, 
he  returned  in  the  Evening  with  the  Cat  to 

MCabre:  goat  or  antelope,  which  the  French  call  cabre.  The  ante- 
lope was  unknown  to  science  until  Lewis  and  Clark  discovered  it,  but 
it  was  not  scientifically  named  until  1815.  (Wheeler's  Trail  of  Lewis 
and  Clark.) 

86The  Little  Missouri  was  later  called  the  Teton,  and  now  Bad  River. 
The  Sioux  Indians  called  it  Wakpa  Chicha,  meaning  "Bad  River."  It 
rises  just  east  of  the  Bad  Lands,  and  flows  through  a  section  abounding 
in  salt  springs.  For  many  years  there  was  a  trading-post  at  the  mouth 
of  this  river,  and  it  was  one  of  the  most  important  locations  in  the 
Sioux  country.  Fort  Laframboise  was  built  there  in  1817,  and  in  1822 
the  Columbia  Fur  Company  had  its  principal  fort,  called  Tecumseh, 
on  the  west  bank  of  the  Missouri  about  two  miles  above  the  mouth 
of  the  Teton,  or  Bad  River. 

[1812]  63 

our  great  satisfaction  this  Remark  may  seem 
ridiculous,  but  an  Animal  of  this  kind,  is  more 
valuable  in  this  Country  than  a  fine  Horse. 
Mice  are  in  great  Abundance  and  the  Com- 
pany have  lost  for  want  of  Cats,  several  Thou- 
sand Dollars  in  Merchandize,  which  were  de- 
stroyed at  the  Bigbellies  station,  there  has 
not  a  night  passed  since  our  departure  from 
Bellefontaine  where  I  got  that  Cat,  that  she 
has  not  caught  from  4  to  10  Mice  and  brought 
them  to  her  Kittens. 

Saturday  the  ist  of  August  last  night  caught 
2  young  Beaver,  cordelled  all  Morning,  still 
and  very  little  Current  at  10.15  mm-  passed 
Chajenne  River96  very  low  at  this  time  saw 
several  Buffaloe,  chased,  but  without  Success, 
crossed  the  River,  and  cordelled  along  the 
Bluffs,  at  Dinner  we  stopt  at  some  Bluffs 
above  Chajenne  River  about  4  Miles,  where 
I  found  plenty  Iron  Ore,  and  somewhat  high- 
er up  signs  of  Salpeter.  Distance  18  Miles 
Killed  2  Deer. 

Sunday  the  2d  some  Rain  fell  last  night,  cloudy 
in  the  Morning,  6  A.  M.  cordelling  the  little 
Boat  joined  us,  they  had  meat  of  3  Buffaloe, 
one  Cow  they  found  wounded  with  an  Ar- 
row, she  came  into  their  Camp.  Distance  18 
Miles  Killed  i  Deer. 

"Cheyenne  River,  Washie  Wahpa — Dakota  words,  meaning  "Good 
River,"  the  antithesis  of  the  river  south  of  it.  The  main  forks  of  the 
north  and  south  branches  of  this  river  embrace  the  Black  Hills  proper. 
It  flows  eastward  toward  the  Missouri,  draining  western  South  Dakota, 
and  joins  the  Missouri  in  Stanley  County,  South  Dakota.  It  takes  it» 
name  from  the  Indians  who  lived  upon  its  upper  waters. 


Monday  the  3  at  6  A.  M.  a  Canoe  with  Gar- 
row,97  the  Interpreter,  2  Engagees  and  Gosh698 
a  Ree  Chief  came  to  us,  they  brought  some 
Corn  and  a  Letter  from  Immel  at  noon  pass- 
ing along  a  Bottom,  we  found  a  Mocassin 
tied  to  a  tree  in  which  we  also  found  a  Letter 
of  Immel  informing  us  they  were  well  and 
would  be  at  the  Rees  from  thence  in  One 
Day.  Distance  21  Miles,  Killed  5  Deer. 

Thuesday  the  4th  headwind  as  usual,  cordelling 
our  Hunters  went  out  this  Morning  and  at 
cinner  brought  3  Deer  i  Buffaloe  4  Ducks, 
passed  Mauro  River,99  in  the  afternoon  Killed 
I  very  large  Buck,  at  5  P.  M.  a  heavy  storm 

"Joseph  Garreau,  probably  a  son  of  Pierre  Garreau  of  St.  Charles 
County,  Missouri.  In  1787,  when  twenty-three  years  of  age,  Joseph  was 
engaged  by  Don  Andres  Fagot  la  Garciniere  of  St.  Louis  to  hunt  and 
trap  on  the  Upper  Missouri  River.  In  January,  1795,  he  was  at  Red 
River  with  the  North  West  Company.  He  seems  to  have  remained  in 
that  country  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  for  every  traveler  who  has 
recorded  his  observations  of  that  region  has  made  mention  of  him. 
Lewis  and  Clark  refer  to  him  as  "Mr.  Garrow"  and  "Interpreter  Gar- 
row."  Wilson  P.  Hunt  saw  him  in  181 1  and  says  that  Garrow  told  him 
he  had  been  with  the  Arikaras  twenty  years.  Irving  described  him 
as  a  "French  Creole,  one  of  those  haphazard  wights  of  Gallic  origin 
who  abound  the  frontiers,  living  among  the  Indians  like  one  of  their 
own  race."  Beckwourth  tells  us  of  Pierre  and  his  brother  Antoine,  and 
of  their  father,  "who  was  a  great  man  among  the  Indians."  Major 
Kearny,  in  1825.  speaks  of  him  as  an  "old  Frenchman  who  has  been 
with  the  Arikaras  for  thirty-seven  years."  Maximilian  and  Larpenteur 
both  mention  him.  Garreau  married  an  Ankara  Indian  and  his  sons 
were  for  many  years  interpreters  at  Fort  Berthold.  South  Dakota 
claims  Joseph  Garreau  as  the  first  permanent  white  settler  in  that 
State.  The  Missouri  Fur  Company's  books  show  that  he  was  en- 
gaged by  it  from  August  4,  1812,  to  May  11,  1813. 

98 Le  Gauche,  "The  Left-handed,"  was  the  hereditary  chief  of  the 
Arikaras.  He  was  a  fine-looking  man,  much  above  the  average  size. 

"Mauro,  Moreau  River;  named  for  a  Canadian  trader.  Clark 
called  it  Sur-zua-carna,  or  "Park  River,"  an  Ankara  name.  On 
most  maps  it  is  given  as  Owl  River.  It  runs  parallel  with  the  Grand 
River  above  and  the  Cheyenne  below. 

[1812]  65 

arose  and  we  had  to  lay  by.  at  6  P.  M.  2 
Skin  Canoes  met  us,  with  Lorimier,  Green- 
wood, Dougherty100  and  Weir,101  it  contin- 
ued raining  and  we  were  obliged  to  Camp. 
Distance  15  Miles. 

Wednesday  the  5th  cleared  up  in  the  Morning 
and  we  went  on  Cordelling,  but  had  the  good 
Luck  to  get  fast  3  times,  at  Dinner  our 
hunters  brought  I  large  Cabri  and  2  Deer 
very  fat,  I  Goose,  pursued  our  Vojage  and 
at  5  P.  M.  .met  3  more  hunters  of  the  Com- 
pany from  the  Rees,  camped  3  Miles  below 
Grand  River. 

Thursday  6th  at  6  A.  M.  passed  Grand  River,102 

lfl°For  a  sketch  of  Major  John  Dougherty,  see  Appendix. 

l01William  Weir,  probably  a  son  of  William  Weir,  a  Revolutionary 
soldier  of  Scotch-Irish  descent,  and  a  brother  of  James  Weir,  one  of 
the  early  settlers  of  Muhlenburg  County,  Kentucky.  He  was  born 
at  Fishing  Creek,  South  Carolina,  in  1787,  was  of  an  adventurous  spirit 
and  left  home  at  an  early  age  to  seek  his  fortune.  He  came  to  Mis- 
souri and  enlisted  with  the  Fur  Company.  He  was  one  of  the  party 
who  went  with  Henry  across  the  mountains  in  the  fall  of  1810,  and 
upon  their  return  to  the  Missouri  he  remained  at  one  of  the  forts  and 
continued  in  the  service  for  a  number  of  years.  He  was  an  active, 
efficient  man,  brave  and  skillful,  and  took  rank  with  Dougherty  and 
Colter.  In  1818  he  was  appointed  by  the  Territorial  Legislature  one 
of  the  commissioners  to  establish  the  county  seat  of  Cooper  County, 
and  in  1820  he  was  charged  with  a  similar  duty  for  Cole  County.  In 
1819  and  1820,  and  perhaps  for  a  longer  time,  he  was  justice  of  the 
peace  in  Moreau  Township,  Cooper  County.  In  1816  he  married, 
and  afterwards  went  to  Crawford  County,  where  he  cleared  a  farm 
and  made  a  home  for  himself  and  family.  The  spirit  of  adventure  was 
too  strong  in  him  to  allow  him  to  abide  contentedly  at  home,  and  he 
joined  a  trading  party  on  a  trip  through  Texas  to  Mexico.  He  died 
at  his  home  in  Missouri  in  1845,  leaving  ten  children.  One  of  them, 
John  Weir,  went  to  Texas  in  the  '303,  and  there  did  good  service  in 
helping  to  achieve  the  independence  of  the  country.  In  1853  he  crossed 
the  plains  to  California,  and  in  1858  he  went  to  the  Puget  Sound  coun- 
try, where  he  spent  the  remaining  years  of  his  life,  and  where  his 
descendants  still  remain.  (Douglas  ed.  Three  Years  Among  the  Indians 
and  Mexicans,  St.  Louis,  1916.) 

lOJGrand  River  was  also  known  by  its   Arikara   name,  Welerhoo, 


Mr.  M.  Lisa  had  intended  to  build  a  fort 
here,  but  finding  the  Situation  not  eligible  for 
a  Fort,  moved  on  and  camped  about  12  Miles 
below  the  Rees.  Distance  15  Miles. 

Friday  the  yth  had  a  little  Wind  in  favor  set  sail 
and  at  12  oclock  M.  arrived  at  fort,103  all 
Indians  in  Motion  to  a  Number  of  abt  1200 
souls,  Mr.  Manuel  L —  could  not  immediately 
go  on  shore,  as  he  had  his  Leg  strained  this 
Morning  when  Jumping  out  of  the  Boat,  and 
got  very  lame,  a  horse  was  procured  and  he 
went  to  the  Village  and  held  Council  with 
the  Principal  Chief,  the  2  other  Chiefs  did 
not  come  to  Council  and  Jealousy  reigned 
among  them,  about  2  P.  M.  the  Women  and 
Children  who  were  about  our  Boats  were 
called  away  to  the  Village,  and  in  a  few 
Minutes  the  Coast  was  clear,  this  was  not 
a  friendly  Signal,  and  we  prepared  for  the 
worst,  after  Dinner  Mr.  M.  L —  resolved  to 
go  to  the  Fort,  he  went  with  10  armed  Men 
and  sent  for  the  Chiefs  to  explain  their  Con- 
duct, when  it  appeared  that  Goshe*  had  re- 
ceived his  presents  and  they  not,  and  further 
complained  on  Account  of  the  Merchandize 
to  be  taken  away  from  them  to  trade  Mr. 
M.  L.,  came  to  an  absolute  Resolution  and 
they  gave  up,  they  were  satisfied  to  have  a 
Fort  built  at  the  third  point  above  their  Vil- 

or  Wetarhoo.    It  flows  through  Harding,  Perkins,  and  Corson  counties, 
South  Dakota;  at  its  mouth  is  the  Standing  Rock  Indian  Reservation. 

i0aThis  reference  is  doubtless  to  an  Indian  fort,  as  there  is  no  record 
of  a  trading-post  at  this  place. 

[1812]  67 

lage  about  12  Miles  distance.104  La  Plume105 
the  Chief  of  the  2d  Village  received  his  Pres- 
ent and  harmonie  was  restored,  they  traded 
some  in  the  afternoon  loaded  the  Peltries  &a. 
and  prepared  for  Morning,  set  a  Volunteer 
Guard,  though  guarded,  the  Indians  would  pil- 
fer every  thing  they  could  lay  their  hands  on. 

Saturday  the  8th  started  early  without  trouble, 
several  went  by  Land  as  also  some  Indians^ 
Gosh6  and  La  Plume  overtook  us  at  noon, 
in  order  to  stop  us  and  not  go  too  high  from 
their  Village,106  but  the  Place  where  we  were 
did  not  answer  for  our  purpose  pursued  our 
Route,  the  Chiefs  went  back  seemingly  dis- 
pleased, camped  12  Miles  above  the  Village, 
last  night  had  our  2  Cats  stolen. 

Sunday  the  9th  of  August  started  early  and  at 
7  A.  M.  arrived  at  a  beautifull  Prairie  Bluff 
with  several  Bottoms  of  fine  timber  around, 

>04Arikara  villages.  Luttig  clearly  indicates  that  the  Rees'  village 
was  twenty-four  miles  above  the  Grand  River.  Dr.  Doane  Robinson 
says,  however:  "These  villages  were  situated  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Missouri  about  eight  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Grand,  in  what  is 
now  Corson  County,  South  Dakota.  The  river  at  this  point  runs  from 
east  to  west,  so  that  the  villages  were  on  the  north  shore."  Trudeau, 
in  1795,  was  at  the  Arikara  village  near  the  Grand  River.  Lewis  and 
Clark  found  this  tribe  occupying  three  village  sites,  which  were  within 
about  four  miles  of  each  other  along  the  river,  between  the  Grand  and 
the  Cannonball  rivers.  They  were  then  located  higher  up  the  river 
than  formerly.  Brackenridge  visited  them  in  1811,  when  they  were 
eight  miles  above  the  Grand  River,  with  a  small  creek  separating  two 
of  the  villages.  In  view  of  the  shifting  of  their  villages,  it  is  rather 
difficult  to  precisely  locate  them  at  any  one  period. 

*°&La  Plume,  Plume  d'Aigle,  probably  the  "Eagle's  Feather"  (Pia- 
heto),  who  was  the  third  chief  of  the  Arikaras  when  Lewis  and  Clark 
passed  the  village  in  1804.  The  explorers  named  a  creek  in  Corson 
County,  South  Dakota,  for  this  chief. 

106It  was  not  unusual  for  the  Indians  to  arbitrarily  designate  the 
spots  where  the  trading-posts  should  be  built. 


made  Arrangement  for  our  Camp  and  in  the 
afternoon  discharged  the  Boats,  every  Men 
happy  to  have  come  thus  far  of  our  Vojage.107 

Monday  the  loth  sent  one  Boat  across  the  River 
with  hands  to  cut  timber  for  a  Blacksmith 
Shop  and  Provision  house  all  hands  employed 
to  fix  a  temporary  Camp. 

Thuesday  the  nth,  no  news  from  the  Village 
until  noon  when  our  Interpreter  Garrow  and 
a  Soldier  arrived,  every  thing  quiet,  they  re- 
ported that  a  Skulking  Big  belly  entered  the 
Village  at  dark  yesterday  and  Killed  I  Ree. 

Wednesday  the  12,  were  informed  a  war  Party 
had  gone  on,  to  fight  the  Bigbellies.108 

l07Fort  Manuel  was  situated  close  to  the  present  line  separating 
North  and  South  Dakota.  Gen.  Chittenden  says  it  was  north  of  46° 
parallel,  but  he  is  mistaken  in  this.  Dr.  Doane  Robinson,  of  the  South 
Dakota  Historical  Society,  locates  it  on  the  cape  just  east  of  Kenel 
post-office  in  Corson  County,  South  Dakota,  and  says  that  he  has 
been  told  of  the  remains  of  a  post  at  that  point.  Dr.  A.  McG.  Beede, 
missionary  at  Fort  Yates,  North  Dakota,  says  the  fort  was  near  the 
mouth  of  a  creek,  about  one-half  of  a  mile  down  the  river  from  Kenel. 
Maximilian  mentions  Lisa's  trading-house  among  the  Arikaras,  "of 
which  nothing  now  remains;  though  the  place  is  still  called  Manoel 
Lisa's  Fort."  It  seems  to  me  that  Doctors  Robinson  and  Beede  fairly 
agree  with  Luttig  on  this  point,  after  summing  up  the  distances  of 
travel  noted  by  him. 

i°sGrosventres  of  the  Missouri,  as  they  were  called  by  the  French, 
and  Minnetarees  by  the  Mandans.  The  tribal  name,  however,  was 
Hidatsa-  For  many  years  they  were  a  migratory  people,  but  finally 
settled  in  permanent  villages  like  the  Mandans.  Close  association  with 
the  Mandans  caused  them  to  adopt  many  of  their  customs.  Their 
home  was  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Missouri,  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Knife  River.  James,  in  his  Three  Years  Among  the  Indians  and  Mex- 
icans, says  of  them:  "We  found  a  manly,  warlike,  and  independent 
tribe,  who  might  well  be  called  for  their  daring  and  enterprising  qual- 
ities Gros  Cfurs,  or  "Big  Hearts,". instead  of  "Big  Bellies."  Alexander 
Henry  describes  them  as  being  "a  fierce  and  savage  set  of  scoundrels, 
less  sociable  and  affable  than  their  neighbors,  the  Mandans."  Under 
the  name  Hidatra,  the  Minnetarees  and  the  Crows  were  once  united 
in  a  single  sub-stock  of  the  great  Siouan  family. 

[1812]  69 

Thursday  the  I3th  Mr.  M.  Lisa  had  resolved 
to  go  up  with  a  party  to  the  Bigbellies  to 
arrange  Matters  with  them  and  bring  down 
the  Peltries,  the  Bigbellies  having  Killed  2 
hunters  and  stole  26  Company  horses,  as  also 
detained  the  Trader  they  had  with  them,  he 
accordingly  went  this  Morning  at  8  oclock 
and  26  Men  with  him.  At  10  P.  M.  60  Rees 
composing  a  War  party  arrived  they  requested 
something  to  eat,  our  hunters  had  just  come 
in  with  3  Buffaloe  and  I  Deer,  we  gave  them 
some  Meat,  and  ferried  them  across  the  Riv- 
er, this  Day  cut  timber  for  different  Build- 
ings, at  the  same  time  the  Rees  were  cross- 
ing the  River  8  Canoes  hove  in  sight  coming 
down  with  Meat,  the  men  in  the  Canoes  saw 
so  many  Indins  crossing,  took  the  terrors 
put  their  Canoes  on  shore  and  run  off,  both 
parties  thinking  they  were  Ennemies,as  soon  as 
the  war  party  arrived  on  the  other  side  they 
gave  the  Halloo  and  run  in  full  Speed  to  the 
Canoes,  finding  nobody  and  seeing  the  Canoes 
belonging  to  their  own  Nation,  they  took 
some  Meat  and  without  searching  for  their 
friends  went  off,  2  hours  afterwards  2  Indians 
appeared  and  ventured  to  come  over  to  our 
side,  on  arrival  we  found  them  to  be  2  Squaws 
the  Men  consisting  of  2  Rees,  2  Panis,109  2 

I09Pawnee  Indians  belong  to  the  Caddoan  family  and  called  them" 
selves  Chahik-si-chakiko,  "men  of  men."  Hodge  says  that  the  name 
is  probably  derived  from  pariki,  a  horn,  a  term  used  to  designate  the 
peculiar  manner  of  dressing  the  scalp-lock.  In  historic  times  the  Pawnee 
tribes  established  themselves  in  the  valley  of  the  Platte.  They  had 
four  distinct  villages,  the  Grand  Pawnee,  the  Republican  Pawnee,  the 
Tapagf,  or  Noisy  Pawnee,  and  the  Skidi,  or  Pawnee  Loup.  In  the 
latter  years  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  Republican  Pawnees  moved 

7°  [1812] 

Chayenne,110  had  run  off,  and  left  every  thing 
behind  them. 

Friday  the  I4th  This  Morning  at  one  oclock 
were  alarmed  by  the  firing  of  a  Gun,  and 
heard  the  Dashing  of  Oars  when  to  our  Sur- 
prize we  saw  Mr.  Manuel  &  party  returning, 
he  having  been  informed  by  one  of  those  Cow- 
ards who  had  run  off  from  the  Canoes,  that 
all  the  white  Men  were  Killed  and  that  the 
Indians  had  crossed  the  River  in  our  Boat 

south  to  the  north  branch  of  the  Kansas.  These  tribes  were  agricult- 
urists, as  well  as  hunters,  having  permanent  villages.  They  were  of 
splendid  physique  and  great  horsemen.  The  Pawnees  were  constantly 
at  war  with  the  neighboring  tribes,  never  remaining  faithful  to  any 
allies  for  any  length  of  time.  These  Indians  were  greatly  feared  by 
the  Southwest  traders,  as  were  the  Blackfeet  by  the  traders  of  the 
Northwest.  Ic  was  this  tribe  that  attacked  the  Chouteau-De  Mun 
party  as  they  were  descending  the  Arkansas  River  in  1816.  The 
party  was  forced  to  take  shelter  on  an  island  just  west  of  Hartland, 
in  Kearny  County,  Kansas. 

*10The  Cheyennes  are  of  Algonquian  stock,  and  were  called  by  the 
Sioux  Shahiyena,  or  Shai-ene,  meaning  "to  speak  a  strange  language." 
This  tribe  never  called  themselves  Cheyennes,  but  Tsis-tsis.  They 
lived  before  1700  on  the  Mississippi,  in  what  is  now  Minnesota.  The 
first  mention  of  this  tribe  in  history  is  in  1680,  under  the  name  of  Chaa, 
when  a  party  of  that  tribe  visited  La  Salle's  Fort  on  the  Illinois  River. 
Later  they  moved  to  the  banks  of  a  branch  of  the  Red  River,  in  North 
Dakota,  which  thereafter  became  known  as  the  Cheyenne  River.  Here 
they  cultivated  the  land  and  built  earth  lodges.  After  some  difficulties 
with  the  Sioux  Indians,  they  were  driven  toward  the  Missouri,  where 
they  tarried  for  a  short  while.  Some  time  afterwards  they  crossed  the 
Missouri  and  took  refuge  in  the  Black  Hills  about  the  head  of  the 
Cheyenne  River  of  South  Dakota,  where  Lewis  and  Clark  found  them 
in  1804.  In  their  journals  they  state  that  the  Cheyennes  were  at 
peace  with  all  except  the  Sioux,  but  that  they  frequently  went  on 
plundering  excursions,  stealing  horses  from  the  Spanish  settlements. 
They  were  a  fighting  people,  and,  it  seems,  were  almost  constantly 
at  war  with  the  neighboring  tribes.  Until  1856  they  were  friendly 
to  the  whites,  but  from  that  time  they  were  a  terror  to  the  border 
settlements,  and  gave  the  United  States  considerable  trouble.  Since 
about  1880  the  tribe  has  been  confined  on  two  separate  reservations: 
the  Southern  Cheyennes  in  Oklahoma,  and  the  Northern  Cheyennes 
in  Montana.  In  1901  the  lands  of  the  Southern  branch  were  allotted 
in  severalty  and  these  Indians  are  now  American  citizens. 

[1812]  71 

to  Kill  them  also,  supposed  by  the  Sioux, 
Mr.  M.  L.  alarmed  on  this  Account  returned 
immediately  to  Camp,  finding  however  to  his 
great  Satisfaction  the  History  of  the  Indian 
false,  he  remained  till  breakfast  and  pursued 
his  first  Intentions,  last  night  about  40  In- 
dians camped  with  us  they  were  gathering 
Cherries  and  other  fruits  about  the  Country 
finished  the  Blacksmith  shop  and  Provision 
house,  caught  8  fine  Cat  fish. 

Saturday  the  I5th  This  Morning  cloudy,  some 
hunters  went  out,  no  Meat  at  home,  caught 
8  Cat  fish,  Rain  at  intervals. 

Sunday  the  i6th  hard  Rain  last  night,  cleared 
up  in  the  Morning  and  all  hands  went  for 
timber,  at  5  P.  M.  our  hunters  returned  with 
Meat  they  had  Killed  1 1  Buifaloe,  caught  1 1 
Cat  fish,  and  Killed  n  Ducks. 

Monday  the  lyth,  clear,  all  hands  cutting  tim- 
ber and  making  Hay,  caught  15  fish,  and 
Killed  15  Ducks. 

Thuesday  the  i8th  all  hands  employed  as  yes- 
terday. 2  Hunters  went  out  for  Buifaloe, 
caught  4  fish. 

Wednesday  the  19.  the  hands  employed  in  Work 
as  yesterday  at  noon  our  hunters  came  in 
with  Meat  of  2  Cows.  Killed  10  Ducks. 

Thursday  the  20,  North  wind  &  cold,  cloudy  in 
the  forenoon  hands  at  work  as  yesterday,  fine 
afternoon  Mr.  Lewis  caught  a  Prairie  Dog, 
caught  4  fish,  Killed  i  Pheasant. 


Friday  the  2ist,  clear  and  hard  wind,  still  at 
work  cutting  timber  and  making  hay.  Killed 
6  Ducks.  Mr  Lewis's  Prairie  Dog  was  nearly 
Killed  by  one  of  our  Dog  who  brocke  the 
Chain  and  run  off  with  him. 

Saturday  the  22d,  clear  and  windy,  the  same 
Work  going  on.  at  noon  Goshe  and  Nez  Cor- 
bain111  a  Yentonas  Chief  arrived  with  four 
Sioux,  at  6  P.  M.  our  hunters  came  in  with 
Meat  of  5  Cows,  this  Day  blew  a  very  hard 
Gale  from  the  South  west.  Killed  28  plover 
and  4  Ducks. 

Sunday  the  23d,  clear,  wind  west  N.  west,  the 
same  work,  at  noon  La  Plume  paid  us  a 
Visit,  dried  some  Meat  very  warm. 

Monday  the  24th  clear,  wind  west,  3  hunters 
went  out  being  informed  the  Buffaloe  was 
near  by  a  party  of  Indians  which  had  been 
hunting  at  10  A.  M.  12  Canoes  arrived  with 
meat  they  made  a  present  of  18  Tongues  and 
went  off  at  noon  caught  10  fish. 

Thuesday  the  25th  cloudy  and  disagreeable, 
hands  at  work  as  usual. 

mAVr,  de  Corbeau,  literally  "Raven's  Nose";  called  by  the  French 
"Roman  Nose,"  and  by  the  Indians  "Wind  That  Walks."  He  was 
for  a  time  second  chief  of  the  Sioux,  but,  being  the  cause  of  the  death 
of  a  trader  in  1799,  ne  voluntarily  relinquished  that  dignity.  When 
Gen.  Pike  met  him  in  1806,  he  requested  to  be  given  up  to  the  whites. 
He  then  determined  to  go  to  St.  Louis  and  deliver  himself  up,  where 
he  said  they  might  put  him  to  death.  As  the  crime  was  committed 
long  before  the  United  States  assumed  its  authority,  and  as  no  law 
of  theirs  could  affect  it,  Gen.  Pike  conceived  "it  would  certainly  be 
dispunishable  now."  Nez  de  Corbeau  was  considered  one  of  the  most 
intelligent  of  his  nation,  and  was  soon  reinstated  in  his  rank.  Pike 
commissioned  him  First  Chief  of  the  nation. 


Wednesday  the  26,  cloudy  and  cold,  at  7  A.  M. 
Mr.  Manuel  Lisa  returned  with  part  of  the 
Men  from  his  expedition,  the  Rest  of  the 
Men  were  coming  by  Land  with  the  horses 
which  he  traded  and  given  up  by  the  Big- 
bellies,  the  head  Chief  Borne112  refused  to  give 
up  the  stolen  horses,  Mr  Manuel  cleared  the 
trading  of  Peltrie  and  Goods  and  took  off 
the  whites,  at  i  P.  M.  Grey  Eye113  (Ree  Chief) 
arrived  with  100  Men  from  a  war  tour,  they 
had  not  Killed  nor  even  seen  an  Ennemy, 
in  the  Evening  a  larger  Party  passed  by  with 
two  Scalps  which  they  carried  before  them 
in  triumph  at  dark  some  more  arrived  and 
camped  with  us. 

Thursday  27,  clear  and  fresh,  the  Big  white,114 
Mandan  Chief  arrived,  with  several  of  his 

il2L?  Borgne,  or  "The  One-eyed,"  a  chief.  This  Indian  is  described 
by  Bracken  ridge  and  Alexander  Henry,  from  whom  we  learn  that  he 
was  a  giant  in  stature,  having  huge  limbs,  gigantic  frame,  bushy  hair, 
and  only  one  eye,  from  which  there  flashed  fire  and  penetration, — all  of 
which  gave  him  the  aspect  of  a  savage  brute.  His  aquiline  nose  was 
of  great  size  and  his  mouth  wide.  His  countenance  denoted  a  brave 
and  enterprising  warrior.  He  was  the  great  chief  of  the  Minnearees 
and  swayed  with  unlimited  control  all  the  villages.  Lewis  and  Clark 
presented  him  with  their  swivel  gun,  on  their  return  from  the  Pacific. 
At  the  time  Luttig  saw  him  he  was  about  51  years  of  age.  Le  Borgne 
is  supposed  to  have  been  killed  by  a  rival  chief,  Red  Shield. 

113Grey  Eyes,  an  Arikara  warrior,  was  a  cunning  and  unscrupulous 
Indian.  He  was  not  the  hereditary  chief  -of  this  tribe,  but  owed  the 
position  of  chieftain  to  his  ability,  courage,  and  arrogance.  He  kept 
his  people  in  terror  of  him.  When  Hunt's  party  stopped  at  the  Arikara 
village  and  asked  Left-handed,  who  was  the  hereditary  chief,  whether 
he  could  supply  the  party  with  horses,  Grey  Eyes  answered  the  ques- 
tion by  saying  that  they  could  easily  steal  more,  if  there  was  not  enough. 
Grey  Eyes  seems  to  have  been  the  principal  agitator  in  the  fight  against 
Gen.  Ashley's  party,  and  was  killed,  in  leading  the  attack  on  August 
10,  1823,  by  the  first  shot  from  the  artillery  under  Lieut.  Morris  of 
Col.  Leavenworth's  command. 

-14Big  White  (Sheheke,  or  Shekaka).  In  recognition  of  his  rank  as 
Chief  of  the  Mandans,  he  was  given  a  medal  by  Lewis  and  Clark  in 


Bravos  and  family,  to  pay  a  visit,  he  had  a 
few  Robes  which  he  traded,  and  took  some 
articles  on  Credit,  at  noon  Nez  Corbain  came 
again  to  receive  a  Present  from  Mr  Manuel 
Lisa  and  as  soon  as  received,  departed  for 
the  Village. 

friday  the  28,  clear  and  the  house  fur  trade  was 
commenced  made  36  Packs115  of  different  Pel- 
tries and  prepared  the  Boat  which  had  to 
go  to  St  Louis. 

Saturday  the  29th,  clear,  this  Morning  the  Men 
which  came  by  Land  from  the  Bigbellies  ar- 
rived with  the  horses,  they  had  met  with  no 
Accident,  they  informed  that  the  Mandans1" 
had  made  a  Hunt  and  Killed  on  One  Day 

October,  1804.  On  the  return  of  Lewis  and  Clark  from  the  Pacific 
Big  White  accepted  their  invitation  to  visit  their  "Great  Father"  at 
Washington.  He  was  accompanied  by  his  wife  and  son,  and  his  inter- 
preter, Rene  Jusseaume.  In  1807  Gov.  Lewis  sent  him  homeward 
under  a  convoy  commanded  by  Lieut.  Pryor.  Upon  reaching  the 
Ankara  village  they  were  fired  upon,  and  after  several  casualties  Lieut. 
Pryor  concluded  to  return  to  St.  Louis.  Sheheke  remained  in  St.  Louis 
until  June,  1809,  when  he  started  on  a  successful  journey  back  to  his 
people.  He  was  about  46  years  old  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

116A  pack  of  furs  contained  ten  buffalo  robes,  fourteen  bear,  sixty 
otter,  eighty  beaver,  eighty  raccoon,  one  hundred  and  twenty  foxes, 
or  six  hundred  muskrat  skins. 

u6The  Mandans  called  themselves  the  "People  of  the  Pheasants" 
or  "People  of  the  East."  The  early  French  traders  referred  to  them 
as  the  "Bearded  Whites."  In  many  respects  the  Mandans  greatly 
excelled  other  Indians  of  North  America.  They  have  been  called  Welsh 
Indians  because  of  the  fairness  of  the  skin  and  hair  of  many  of  the 
tribe.  Catlin  says  of  them:  "They  are  distinct  from  all  other  red 
folks  I  have  seen,  differing  in  many  respects  both  in  looks  and  customs 
from  all  other  tribes  which  I  have  seen."  This  tribe  of  Indians  were 
first  seen  by  white  men  (whose  visits  have  been  recorded)  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  Mandan  and  Bismarck  in  what  is  now  North  Dakota.  This 
was  in  1738.  The  Mandans  were  almost  wiped  out  by  the  small-pox 
epidemic  of  1837,  being  reduced  from  1,600  souls  to  about  150.  In 
1845  they  moved  near  Fort  Berthold,  North  Dakota,  and  joined  the 

[1812]    .  75 

450  Buff  aloe,  employed  in settling  Ac- 
counts and  writing,  at  5  P.  M.  our  hunters 
brought  in  the  Meat  of  5  Cows. 

Sunday  the  3Oth  clear,  at  10  A.  M.  the  Boat 
started  for  St  Louis117  with  13  Men,  several 
others  went  to  the  Ree  Village  to  purchase 
Corn  and  Skins  for  covering  of  the  Boat,  in 
the  evening  they  returned  and  had  only  suc- 
ceeded to  buy  two  Bushels  of  Corn  and  8 
Hides,  the  Indians  not  being  willing  to  trade. 

Monday  the  3ist  cloudy  and  hard  wind  from 
the  S.  W.  — made  up  an  assortment  to  go  to 
the  Mandan  and  purchase  Horses  for  the  par- 
ties going  up  the  River. 

Thuesday  Sept.  I,  cloudy  and  heavy  Squalls, 
four  Men  went  to  the  Men  to  buy  horses, 
made  a  fish  trap  of  willars,  and  caught  31 
Cat  fish,  hunters  went  out  this  Morning,  and 
returned  in  the  Evening  had  Killed  II  Cow. 

Sept.  2d  Wednesday  hard  Gales  from   N.  W. 
'  La  Plume  came  to   Camp,  the  wind  abated 
about  Sun  set  cloudy  and  cold. 

Thursday  Sept.  3.  clear  and  warm,  caught  6 
fish  very  large. 

Minnetarees  and  Arikaras  in  a  stockaded  village,  where  they  remained 
until  1888.  Then  these  tribes  separated  and  scattered  to  the  north- 
ward and  westward,  the  Mandans  crossing  to  the  southwest  side  of  the 
Missouri  and  settling  above  and  below  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Mis- 
souri. The  Mandans  were  agriculturists  and  artisans,  and  more  highly 
civilized  than  the  other  Indian  tribes  of  the  Northwest.  They  lived 
in  circular  clay-covered  log  huts,  which  were  in  ancient  times  sur- 
rounded with  palisades  of  strong  posts.  In  1905  their  population  was 
about  250. 

ll7This  boat  arrived  in  St.  Louis  about  September  27,  1812. 

76  [1812] 

friday  Sept.  4  nothing  remarkable,  cloudy  and 

Saturday  Sept.  5  the  same. 
Sunday         "      6  the  same. 

Monday  7  moved  in  the  new  house  and 

began  to  make  Equipments118  for  the  Parties 
going  up  the  Missouri. 

Thuesday  8  finished  Equipments,  Killed  14 

Wednesday  9  our  hunter  brought  Meat  of  9 
Buifaloe,  were  informed  the  Sioux  and  Rees 
had  fought  a  Battle  2  Sioux  Killed  3  Rees 

Thursday  10  clear  and  warm,  the  Grey  Eye 
Chief  and  3  Men  arrived  from  a  Scout. 

friday  the  nth  early  rise,  the  parties  prepared 
to  start.  Mr.  Sanguinette  and  2  Men  with  5 
horses  for  the  Spanish  waters119  Mr  Lorimier 

118Equipment  to  clerks  and  boatmen  consisted  of:  I  three-point 
blanket,  valued  at  $4.00;  \%  yards  of  blue  cloth,  $2.66;  I  calico  shirt, 
72  cents;  I  cotton  handkerchief,  16  cents;  i  knife,  17  cents;  3  pounds 
of  tobacco,  1 8  cents. 

ll9The  Arkansas  River.  The  Arapaho  Indians  lived  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  this  river,  which  has  its  sdurces  in  the  Rocky  Mountains 
to  the  westward  of  Pike's  Peak.  "The  Arkansas  River  bore  the  unique 
distinction  among  western  streams  of  being  an  international  boundary, 
and  prior  to  the  war  with  Mexico  it  was  the  frontier  between  the 
United  States  and  that  country  from  the  looth  meridian  to  its  source. 
This  fact  gave  it  an  artificial  importance  which  it  in  no  way  possessed 
as  a  natural  water-course.  The  upper  course  of  the  Arkansas  was  a 
great  resort  for  traders  and  trappers,  and  here  arose  the  well-known 
Bent's  Fort,  which  held  commercial  sway  for  many  years  over  the 
surrounding  country."  (Chittenden,  History  of  the  American  Fur 


[1812]  77 

and  four  for  wind  River,120  Mr  Lewis,  two 
engagees  and  the  trappers  for  the  little  Horn121 
in  all  1 8  Men,  at  noon  a  Sioux  Chief  arrived 
to  have  a  talk  with  Mr  M.  L.  and  9  Men 
with  him,  cloudy  &  rain  we  traded  some  dry 
meat  and  i  Robe. 

Saturday  the  12,  the  Sioux  started  this  Morn- 
ing, as  also  Mercier,122  LaChapel  and  Carri- 
ere123 for  their  fall  hunt  down  the  Missouri, 
Killed  14  Ducks. 

Sunday  the  I3th  fine  weather,  began  to  hawl 
stone  for  Chimneys  our  hunters  went  out 
finished  the  store  caught  15  large  fish. 

Monday  the  14  last  Night  a  Ree  Chief  Legross124 
came  to  fort  with  his  Wife  he  was  lamenting 
the  Death  of  one  of  his  Children  which  had 
died  2  Days  ago,  Mr  Manuel  covered  the 
Dead  Child,  Legross  being  a  good  Indian, 
this  morning  had  22  fish  fine  warm  weather, 

l2°Bighorn  River.  It  is  the  principal  tributary  of  the  Yellowstone; 
rises  in  the  Shoshone  and  Wind  River  Mountains  in  Wyoming.  At 
its  mouth  Manuel  Lisa  established  a  trading-post  in  1808  and  named 
it  Fort  Raymond  The  upper  course  of  thit  river  was  known  for  a 
time  as  Wind  River. 

l2*Little  Bighorn,  one  of  the  tributaries  of  the  Yellowstone.  This 
river  is  famous  as  the  scene  of  the  Custer  massacre. 

122Antoine  Mercier  was  born  at  Kaskaskia,  Illinois,  November  15, 
1766,  the  son  of  Joseph  Marie  and  Catherine  (Desgagniers)  Mercier. 
He  was  in  the  service  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  from  1809. 

l23Eustache  Carriere,  a  native  of  La  Rivifcre  du  Chene,  the  son  of 
Baptiste  and  Marie  (Lajeunesse)  Carriere.  He  married  at  Florissant, 
Missouri,  January  3,  1820,  Josette  Therese  Jusseaume,  daughter  of 
Ren6  Jusseaume,  the  Indian  interpreter.  There  was  a  Carriere  with 
the  Hunt  party  of  Astorians,  who  was  lost  "never  to  be  heard  of  later." 
There  was  also  a  Michel  Carriere  at  the  American  Fur  Company's 
Fort  Tecumseh  in  1830-1833  and  later  at  Fort  Union. 

v*Le  Gross  ("Big  Man"),  a  ferocious-looking,  gigantic  fellow.  He 
was  the  principal  war  chief  of  the  Arikaras  when  Brackenridge  visited 
this  tribe  in  1811. 


our  hunters  returned  with  6  Cows  and  the 
pleasing  news  of  plenty  in  the  prairies. 

Thuesday  the  15,  moved  in  the  Store,  took  an 
Inventory  caught  8  fish,  warm  and  clear. 

Wednesday  the  16  fine  weather  nothing  remark- 

Thursday  the  17  the  Wind  blew  heavy  from  the 
N.  W.,  abt  6  A.  M.  the  Men  who  went  to 
gett  the  Horses,  came  back  and  told  the  sad 
news  that  5  Indians,  supposing  Grosventers 
had  mounted  the  horses  in  their  Sight  and 
rode  them  off.  7  in  Number,  Charbonneau125 
who  was  on  horse  back  came  in  full  speed  to 
the  fort  and  cried  out;  To  Arms  Lecomte126 
is  Killed,  he  run  off  and  left  the  poor  fel- 
low, the  Indians  spoke  to  Lecomte  and  they 
told  him  to  go  about  his  busines  he  asked 
them  what  Nation  they  were,  they  answered 
Crows127  if  the  Indians  had  an  Idea  to  Kill 

l28For  a  sketch  of  Toussaint  Charbonneau,  see  Appendix. 

l26Fran?ois  Lecompte.  In  the  contract  of  engagement  of  Francois 
Lecompte  with  the  co-partnership  of  Lisa  and  Drouillard,  dated  Sep- 
tember 24,  1803,  the  former  is  referred  to  as  an  " habitant  de  la  Made- 
lainne"  Under  this  engagement  he  was  to  serve  three  years  as  hunter 
and  trapper  and  at  the  end  of  that  period  agreed  to  return  to  St.  Louis, 
and,  if  mutually  satisfactory,  to  renew  his  contract.  On  June  30,  1807, 
at  the  Kansas  River,  Lecompte  agreed  to  remain  in  the  service  of  Lisa. 
He  attached  his  mark  to  the  document,  which  was  witnessed  by  Robert 
McClellan.  There  was  a  Franfois  Lecompte  in  the  service  of  the 
Northwest  Company  previous  to  1803,  and  it  is  probable  that  it 
was  this  man. 

127The  Crows,  called  Absaroke,  "crow,"  or  "bird  people";  the  early 
French  traders  referred  to  them  as  gens  des  corbeaux.  This  tribe  are  of 
Siouan  origin,  forming  part  of  the  Hidatsa  group;  separating  from  the 
Hidatsa  (as  Matthews  believes,  about  1694),  they  left  their  villages 
on  the  Missouri  and  migrated  to  the  region  of  the  Rocky  Mountains . 
They  were  a  roving,  quarrelsome,  and  thieving  people.  Maximilian 



him  they  might  easy  have  done  it,  10  armed 
Men  went  immediately  after  them  but  re- 
turned without  Success  they  saw  them  no 
more,  a  cloudy  Day  and  cold. 

friday  the  18  disagreeable  weather,  the  wife  of 
Elie128  a  Snake  Squaw  died,  made  a  Wolf  trap 
and  raised  the  Mens  house. 

Saturday  the  iQth  Charbonneau  and  Jessaume129 
departed  for  to  go  to  the  Bigbellies,  to  try 
to  get  the  horses  Bijou  arrived  from  his  Sta- 
tion with  10  Sioux,  (Saunie)  to  make  peace 
with  the  Rees,  as  Mr  M.  L.  had  proposed, 

considered  them  the  proudest  of  Indians,  despising  the  whites.  While 
they  did  not  wantonly  kill  the  whites,  they  never  missed  an  oppor- 
tunity to  plunder  them. 

128 Joseph  Elie,  or  Helie,  as  it  was  sometimes  written,  entered  the 
employment  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  in  1810.  He  was  a  Cana- 
dian, born  about  1786,  and  died  in  St.  Louis,  January  14,  1816. 

129RENE  JUSSEAUME,  sometimes  called  St.  Pierre,  was  a  native  of 
Canada,  and  claimed  to  have  been  in  the  Mandan  villages  as  a  free 
trader  as  early  as  1791.  He  was  in  the  employ  of  the  Northwest 
Company  on  the  Red  River  in  1793,  and  served  as  guide  and  inter- 
preter to  David  Thompson  on  his  voyage  of  exploration  in  1797-  He 
was  interpreter  for  Lewis  and  Clark  at  Fort  Mandan,  and  accompanied 
the  Mandan  chief  Sheheke  and  Capt.  Meriwether  Lewis  to  ^  see  the 
President  in  1806.  On  the  first  attempt  to  convey  the  Indian  chief 
back  to  his  home  Jusseaume  was  wounded  by  the  Arikaras.  He  was 
brought  down  to  St.  Louis  and  cured,  and  finally  returned  to  his  home 
with  Sheheke,  in  1809.  In  1811  and  later  he  was  in  the  employ  of 
Manuel  Lisa.  On  August  24,  1817,  Toussaint  Jusseaume,  son  of  Ren6 
Jusseaume  and  Catherine  des  Bois,  married  Marguerite  Bergan  at  Ca- 
hokia,  and  on  January  3,  1820,  at  Florrissant,  Missouri,  Josette  Therese 
Jusseaume,  daughter  of  Ren6,  married  Eustache  Carriere,  also  of  this 

8o  [1812] 

at  2  P.  M.  our  hunters  brought  in  3    Elk 
fine  Evening. 

Sunday  the  2Oth  a  clear  but  cold  Morning  2 
Rees  arrived  in  search  of  a  Women  which  had 
run  off,  after  Breakfast  Immel  and  4  Men 
went  hunting,  in  the  afternoon  Goshe  and  3 
Men  arrived  he  seemed  not  much  pleased 
with  the  Sioux,  they  harangued  much  this 
Evening,  and  to  Morrow  was  fixed  to  smoke 
and  make  Peace. 

Monday  2ist  fine  weather  and  warm,  one  of 
the  Warriors  of  the  Sioux  after  having  taken 
a  little  mixed  whisky,  pretended  to  be  drunk, 
and  cut  Capers  about  like  a  mad  Men,  which 
determined  the  Business  with  the  Rees,  it 
was  resolved  that  the  Sioux  should  depart  in 
the  Evening  unseen  by  other  Indians  which 
might  hurt  them,  they  spent  the  Day  agre- 
able  together  and  at  8  oclock  in  the  Evening 
they  crossed  the  River,  accompanied  by  a 
few  Presents.  Bijou  who  was  to  go  by  water 
found  the  Canoes  not  good  and  remained. 

Thuesday  the  22d  fine  warm  weather  and  clear 
Bijou  loaded  his  Canoe  and  went  down  the 
River  with  Manegre,130  at  10  A.  M.  Goshe 
and  party  also  started  and  Immel  came  home 
with  i  Elk  and  2  Deer  very  fat  he  found  no 

180Louis  Manegre.  There  was  a  family  in  Cahokia,  Illinois,  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  of  this  name,  though  they  used 
several  variations  in  the  spelling,  such  as  Manegle  and  Manaigle.  Joseph 
Manegre  was  one  of  the  original  claimants  of  land  in  Kaskaskia,  Illi~ 
nois.  According  to  the  Missouri  Fur  Company's  book,  Louis  Manegre 
deserted;  the  last  entry  being  September  21,  1812. 

[1812]  8i 

Buifaloe  traded   2  horses,  in  the  Evening  a 
Rees  and  2  Woman  to  trade  a  horse. 

Wednesday  the  23  fine  and  clear  weather,  set 
2  hens  with  22  Eggs,  traded  the  horse  in  the 
Evening  another  arrived  to  trade  a  horse  and 
also  his  Wife,  a  handsome  Squaw  he  found 
trade  for  the  horse  but  not  for  the  Wife,  a 
Mandan  arrived,  no  news  from  above. 

Thursday  the  24th  fine  warm  weather  for  the 
Season  traded  some  Corn  the  Indians  went 
to  the  Village,  Immel  and  3  men  went  hunt- 
ing took  10  traps  and  7  Horses  with  him, 
in  the  Evening  Nez  Corbain  and  50  Men  of 
the  Yentonas  arrived. 

friday  25th,  Rain  and  windy  traded  some  Meat 
with  the  Indians,  after  dinner  they  brought 
in  their  Plunder  for  trade  and  we  traded  sev- 
eral Peltries,  a  large  quantity  of  dry  meat  and 
tallow,  held  a  Council  and  made  a  Present 
of  10  Ib.  Powder  15  Ib.  Bail,  I  Kegg  of  mixed 

Saturday  the  26,  they  were  preparing  to  move, 
when  we  found  they  had  stolen  a  foot  Adge 
and  a  handsaw,  by  giving  a  Hand  Kerchief 
to  the  Chief  he  promised  to  return  them  we 
got  the  Adge  but  not  the  Saw,  when  they 
were  gone  we  found  our  table  Knives  and 
the  Door  of  a  large  had  also  departed  at  2  P. 
M.  our  hunters  came  in  with  4  Buffaloe,  they 
had  left  Immel  with  one  Men  to  trap  Beav- 

Sunday  the   27th   nothing    remarkable,  Rain, 


blew  a  hard  Gale  and  continued  so  all  Night 

Monday  the  28  in  the  Morning  when  it  cleared 
up  our  Hunters  went  out  for  Meat,  and  in 
the  afternoon  about  40  Sioux  arrived  to  trade, 
in  the  Evening  a  hard  thunder  Storm — 

Thuesday  the  29th  had  cleared  up,  began  to 
trade  they  had  not  much  peltry,  at  9  A.  M. 
the  Indian  crossed  again. 

Wednesday  the  3Oth  clear 'and  fresh  at  2  P.  M. 
our  hunters  came  in  with  the  Meat  of  3  Cows 
2  Deer,  2  whole  Beaver  and  Beaver  meat, 
Immel  having  caught  14  Beaver. 

Thursday  the  1st  of  October,  at  Sunrise  we  had 
to  cross  a  band  of  Sioux,  accompanied  by 
Nez  Corbain  and  another  Chief  called  Boite 
about  40  in  Number  they  traded  and  re- 
turned at  noon  satisfied,  in  the  afternoon  7 
Men  started  up  the  River  with  the  Mackina 
Boat  to  hunt  Buff  aloe,  and  Immel  came  home 
with  15  Beaver  i  Otter  and  2  Muskrats;  the 
wind  blew  very  hard  from  N  W  and  the  Boat 

friday  the  2d  the  Boat  went  again  early  in 
the  Morning  the  wind  arose  from  the  same 
quarter  they  stopped  at  the  first  point  above 
four  Rees  came  to  fort. 

Saturday  the  3,  clear  and  cold  had  white  frost 
this  Morning  Ma  jet  and  all  hands  employed 
to  cut  Picketts,  at  Sunset  2  Mandans  ar- 
rived with  the  sad  news  of  the  Big  white  and 

[1812]  83 

Little  Crow131  being  Killed  by  the  Bigbellies 
and  3  Mandans  wounded,  the  Bigbellies  had 
II  Men  Killed  and  a  Number  wounded,  at 
night  Charbonneau  &  Jessaume  returned  and 
brought  with  them  3  of  the  horses  which  had 
been  stolen  by  the  Mandans  and  not  Big- 
bellies  as  supposed  a  lesson  to  take  care  of 
our  property,  no  matter  friend  or  Ennemy. 

Sunday  the  4th  the  Mandans  went  to  the  Rees 
accompanied  by  3  Rees  fine  weather. 

Monday  the  5th  Immel  went  to  the  Village 
with  Mr  Manuel  returned  in  the  Evening 
they  were  informed  the  Sioux  had  stolen  3 
horses  from  us  in  the  night  of  the  3d  instant 
and  by  examination  we  found  one  of  Com- 
pany one  of  Gosh£  and  one  of  Charbonneau 

Thuesday  the  6th  last  night  the  Dogs  made 
alarm  we  went  patroalling,  heard  some  whis- 
tling of  Men,  but  found  in  the  Morning  our 
horses  safe,  raised  the  right  wing  of  the  out 
houses  and  Kept  our  horses  housed. 

lziJKago-ha-mi,  Little  Raven,  better  known  as  Little  Crow,  a  Mandan 
chief.  On  October  29,  1804,  Captains  Lewis  and  Clark  held  council 
with  the  Mandans  and  distinguished  some  of  the  leading  men  of  that 
nation  by  making  them  chiefs.  In  this  manner  Little  Crow  was  made 
second  chief  of  the  lower  village  and  was  presented  with  a  medal  bear- 
ing the  impressions  of  domestic  animals.  He  was  very  friendly  to  the 
men  of  that  expedition.  When  Capt.  Clark  requested  the  Mandans 
to  choose  a  confidential  chief  to  return  with  the  expedition  and  visit 
President  Jefferson,  Little  Crow  showed  a  willingness  to  accept  the 
honor.  Later  he  declined  to  accompany  them  and  refused  the  flag 
which  Capt.  Clark  wished  to  present  to  him.  His  refusal  was  occa- 
sioned by  jealousy  between  him  and  the  principal  chief,  Sheheke,  Big 
White.  After  some  persuasion  the  chiefs  became  reconciled^and  agreed 
that  Big  White  should  go  in  place  of  Little  Crow. 

84  [1812] 

Wednesday  the  7th  fine  warm  weather  all  hands 
to  cut  Pickets  a  beautiful  Day  for  the  Season 
nothing  remarkable — 

Thursday  the  8th  this  Morning  2  horses  were 
stolen  in  sight  of  the  house,  distance  150  steps 
the  Men  who  had  to  take  care  of  the  horses 
went  to  his  Breakfast  and  returning  the  horses 
were  gone. 

friday  the  Qth  clear  and  fine  weather,  in  the 
afternoon  4  Rees  arrived  to  give  us  Notice 
that  their  Corn  was  gathered  and  ready  for 
trade.  Charbonneau  &  Jessaume  Keep  us  in 
Constant  uproar  with  their  Histories  and  wish 
to  make  fear  among  the  Engagees,  these  two 
Rascals  ought  to  be  hung  for  their  perfidy, 
they  do  more  harm  than  good  to  the  Amer- 
ican Government,  stir  up  the  Indians  and 
pretend  to  be  friends  to  the  white  People  at 
the  same  time  but  we  find  them  to  be  our 

Saturday  the  10  fine  weather,  the  Rees  went 
home  again  Garrows  Wife  a  Ree  Squaw  Sis- 
ter to  the  Chief  Goshe,  came  to  fort  last 
night,  this  Morning  she  was  going  to  shot  her 
husband,  she  came  here  with  that  Intention, 
some  Rees  arrived  which  were  enraged  against 
Charbonneau  &  Jessaume,  having  heard  of 
their  arrival  from  the  Bigbellies  they  said 
that  C.  &  J.  were  Lyars  and  not  to  be  con- 
sidered as  good  french  men,  and  if  Mr  Man- 
uel Lisa  would  sent  them  to  the  Gros venter 
with  a  pipe  they  would  not  consent  such 


Credit  have  these  Men  amongst  the  Indians — 
they  find  their  Character  gone  and  try  every 
Scheme,  to  Keep  themselves  alive  like  a  Men 
a  Drowning,  I  shall  leave  them  for  a  while, 
and  go  on  with  my  Observations. 

Sunday  the  nth  Immel  and  others  went  with 
the  Boat  to  the  Ree  Village  to  trade  Corn, 
late  last  Evening  the  Boat  and  hunters  ar- 
rived with  a  fine  Chanoe  of  Meat  they  had 
Killed  19  Cows  and  4  Elk,  but  lost  the  meat 
of  7  Cows  by  the  Wolves,  there  are  incred- 
ible quantities  of  Wolves  in  this  parts,  they 
go  in  gangs  of  3  to  400  and  at  Nights  the 
Prairies  echo  with  their  howling  but  nothing 
of  this  Kind  can  prevent  the  Savage  of  his 
favorite  Walk,  to  Kill  and  steal  at  night, 
this  Day  finished  our  new  Provision  Store, 
and  go  on  with  the  other  houses,  the  Horses 
are  Kept  under  Lock  and  we  fear  no  Lurking 

Monday  the  12  we  had  frost  last  night,  the 
Vessels  full  of  ice  clear  and  cold  Morning, 
but  calm  and  warm  in  the  afternoon  cloudy 

Thuesday  the  13,  white  frost,  cloudy,  this  Morn- 
ing our  Cart  man  was  attacked  by  5  Wolves, 
but  cleared  himself  Immel  returned,  the  Rees 
will  not  trade  Corn  with  us. 

Wednesday  the  I4th,  fine  clear  weather,  4  Men 
went  out  to  hunt,  some  Rees  arrived  to  trade 
a  little  Corn  and  a  Girl  the  first  was  traded, 
but  the  last  not,  she  wanted  to  be  the  Wife 

86  [1812 

of  frenchman,  and  not  his  concubine, — Chas- 
tity.— got  this  Day  21  Chickens. 

Thursday  the  15,  This  Morning  Immel,  Papin 
and  Charbonneau  started  for  the  Grosventer, 
Mr  M.  Lisa  having  engaged  Charbonneau  for 
some  good  reasons  at  8  A.  M.  a  Band  of 
Chajennes  about  12  Lodges  arrived  their  Chief 
named  Lessaroco,  they  had  plenty  Women  & 
Children  and  a  great  Number  of  Dogs,  traded 
some  Beaver,  and  about  50  Bushels  of  Corn. 

friday  the  i6th,  clear  and  warm,  the  Cha- 
jennes went  off  they  behaved  very  well,  traded 
tranquil  and  in  the  afternoon  2  young  Men 
brought  our  Hogs  back  which  had  followed 

Saturday  the  17,  cloudy,  Majet  and  hands 
crossed  the  River  for  Picketts,  in  the  after- 
noon some  Rees  arrived,  traded  6  Beaver  and 
some  Corn. 

Sunday  the  18,  cloudy  &  cold,  Boat  went  for 
Picketts  again. 

Monday  the  19  the  same  as  yesterday. 

Thuesday  the  20,  snowstorm,  at  3  P.  M.  Goshe* 
arrived  with  4  Chajennes  of  a  large  band, 
they  came  to  inform  themselves  how  we 
traded,  and  observe  we  had  not  Goods  enough 
for  their  Peltries,  we  shall  see  when  they 
come  ? 

Wednesday  the  2ist  cold  and  cloudy,  this  Morn- 
;/  ing  the  Chajennes  went  off  and  Goshe*  re- 

[1812]  87 

mained,  at  noon  2  of  our   hunters  came  in 
with  Meat  of  2  Cows. 

Thursday  the  22d  clear  and  cold,  the  2  hunters 
went  out  again,  commenced  the  Stockade  of 
the  fort. 

friday  the  23  clear  and  cold  had  3  Kittens  this 

Saturday  the  24  clear  and  cold  after  Dinner 
our  Heroes  arrived  from  the  Bigbellies,  they 
brought  a  Pipe  and  3  Bladder  for  the  Rees, 
their  Mission  had  been  successful  and  all 
Differences  existing  between  them  and  the 
whites  settled  at  the  same  time  our  hunters 
arrived  with  Meat  of  2  Cows,  they  had 
Killed  7  and  caught  20  Beaver  I  Otter  2 
Muskrats  and  Killed  2  Wolves. 

Sunday  the  25,  clear  and  cold  nothing  to  remark. 

Monday  the  26,  the  same.  Mr  Manuel  L.  went 
accompanied  by  the  2  Interpreters,  Papin  and 
3  Men  to  the  Ree  Village  with  the  Pipe  of  the 

Thuesday  the  27  clear  and  cold  hunters  went 
with  7  Horses  but  returned  in  the  Evening, 
having  seen  some  Lurking  Savages.  Mr.  M. 
L.  returned  from  the  Village  successful 

Wednesday  the  28th  clear  and  moderate  warm, 
our  hunter  took  an  early  start  across  the 
River  with  6  Horses,  at  evening  4  Rees  and 
I  Mandan  came  to  the  fort  from  the  Man- 
dans,  they  informed  the  brother  of  Legrand132 

liaLe  Grand,  Ohheenaw,  or  "Big  Man,"  "a  Cheyenne,  was  taken  pris- 
oner by  the  Mandans,  who  adopted  him;  he  now  enjoys  the  first 
consideration  among  the  tribe".  (Lewis  and  Clark,  Coues  ed.,  p.  182.) 

88  [1812] 

had  died  of  his  wounds,  received  in  the  Battle 
with  the  Bigbellies. 

Thursday  the  29th  clear  and  warm,  finishing 
writing  and  at  n  A.  M.  Lajois133  and  Gogal134 
two  Engagees  set  sail  in  a  Canoe  for  St. 

133Louis  Lajoie,  son  of  Joseph  and  Franchise  (Trudal)  Lajoie  of 
Masquilonge,  Quebec,  where  he  was  born  about  1778.  He  married, 
first,  Celeste  Tabeau,  daughter  of  Jacques  and  Susanne  (Jarret)  Ta- 
beau,  February  3,  1801,  at  Florissant,  Missouri.  Three  children  were 
born  of  this  marriage:  Margaret.  October  6,  1802;  Charles,  Septem- 
ber 25,  1804;  and  Joseph,  August  9,  1807.  After  the  death  of  his 
wife,  he  married  Susanne  Charette  (Jarret3),  daughter  of  Henry  Char- 
ette,  or  Jarret,  at  Florissant,  September  7,  1829.  The  second  wife 
appears  to  have  been  a  relative  of  his  first  wife,  having  the  same  name 
as  the  latter's  mother.  Ten  children  were  born  of  this  second  marriage; 
five  of  them  dying  in  infancy.  In  1833  he  testified  in  a  land  suit  that 
he  was  living  in  Florissant  sometime  before  1800  and  was  about  22 
years  old  at  the  time;  that  he  had  previously  come  to  St.  Louis  for  the 
purpose  of  obtaining  a  Spanish  Government  concession  of  land,  which 
he  received  from  Gov.  Delassus,  February  19,  1800.  He  also  testified 
that  he  was  oftener  drunk  than  sober;  that  he  recollected  having  sold 
his  interest  in  the  grant,  when  in  a  frolic,  for  a  pint  of  whiskey.  Being 
asked  what  was  his  occupation  at  that  time,  he  answered,  "Drinking 
drams."  He  testified  that  he  supported  his  family  by  working  by  the  day 
when  sober;  that  since  a  few  years  he  had  left  off  drinking.  He  re- 
mained in  St.  Louis  County  until  about  1840,  after  which  he  joined 
his  old  friends,  the  Robidoux,  at  Black  Snake  Hills  (St.  Joseph,  Mo.). 
Four  of  his  children's  marriages  are  recorded  in  the  church  register 
of  the  Cathedral  at  St.  Joseph,  viz.:  Henry  Lajoie  to  Sophie  Papin, 
January  7,  1847;  Margaret  Lajoie  to  Allen  Wallis,  January  18,  1848; 
Louis  Lajoie  to  Maryanne  Wallis,  January  10,  1848;  and  Octavia 
Lajoie  to  John  Picard,  May  I,  1855. 

134Joseph  Joyal  of  Montreal,  Canada,  son  of  Antoine  and  Agathe 
(Ribeau)  Joyal.  He  was  married  at  St.  Louis,  August  3,  1818,  to  The- 
rese  Labadie,  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Genevieve  (Labuiche)  Labadie, 
dit  St.  Pierre.  Ten  children,  two  of  whom  died  in  infancy,  were  born 
of  this  marriage:  Oliver,  born  February  2,  1821;  Francois,  born  De- 
cember 12,  1826,  was  drowned  in  1853;  Louise  Amanda,  March  31, 
1829,  who  married  William  J.  Johnson;  Antoine,  April  26,  1831;  Aga- 
the, April  22,  1833;  Joseph,  May  17,  1835;  Elizabeth,  April  16,  1838, 
who  married  Alphonzo  Boucherelle;  and  Edward,  who  was  killed  in  the 
Civil  War.  In  1832  Joseph  Joyal  made  his  will,  mentioning  his  wife, 
Aglae,  and  his  children,  Oliver,  Marie,  Francois,  Amanda,  and  Antoine. 
Three  children  were  born  after  he  made  his  will.  Joseph  Joyal  died 
at  St.  Louis,  December  5,  1841. 

There  was  a  Joseph  Joyal  voyageur  in  the  Northwest  Company  on 
upper  Red  River  in  1804. 

[1812]  89 

Louis,  with  a  few  Peltries  &a  cloudy  evening 
at  1 1  P.  M.  Goshe*  and  Legross  with  4  War- 
riors came  to  fort  with  a  Pipe  for  the  Big- 

Friday  the  3Oth  Charbonneau  and  the  4  War- 
riors marched  off  to  the  Bigbellies,  our  hunt- 
ers returned  with  Meat  of  2  Cows,  they  had 
met  plenty  but  very  wild  and  could  not  Kill. 

Saturday  the  3ist  Snow  this  Morning,  cleared 
up  at  noon  and  had  fine  weather,  nothing  to 

Sunday  November  I,  frost  last  Night,  cold  and 
clear  several  Rees  came  to  the  fort,  Woahl13" 
and  Chaine136  returned  from  trapping,  they 
brought  53  Beaver  I  Otter  5  Muskrats  2 
Wolves  2  Mink  20  foxes  7  Elk  Skins. 

Monday  the  2d,  cloudy  and  hard  Gales  from 
West  a  hunting  party  was  prepared  to  go  up 
the  River  in  the  Boat,  but  blewing  to  hard 
were  prevented. 

136Fran$ois  Oulle.  This  name  is  on  the  Company's  books  of  1812- 
1813  as  Oul,  Oull,  and  Ouelle.  There  was  recorded  in  the  church 
register  of  Cahokia,  April  2,  1799,  the  marriage  of  Antoine  Oule,  son 
of  Francois  Oule  and  Marie  J.  Laroche.  Francois  Oulle  appears  to 
have  been  an  independent  trader,  and  is  likely  the  man  referred  to  in 
the  church  register. 

130Pierre  Chaine,  variously  spelled  Chene,  Chaine,  and  Chesne.  The 
Chesne  family  was  one  of  the  most  important  in  Detroit  in  early  days. 
At  least  two  members  of  this  family  served  with  the  British  forces 
during  the  Revolution.  One,  Isadore  Chaine,  was  interpreter  for  the 
British  forces  at  Post  Vincennes  in  1779.  Tanguay  gives  the  births 
and  marriages  of  several  Pierre  Chaines,  but  there  is  no  way  of  identi- 
fying these  with  the  person  referred  to  in  this  journal.  A  Pierre  Chaine 
married  in  St.  Louis,  in  1853,  Catherine  Perrin.  There  was  a  Pierre 
Chene  at  Fort  Benton  in  1864,  according  to  Larpenteur's  journal.  The 
account-book  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  covering  this  expedition 
shows  that  Peter  Chaine  was  sent  among  the  Mandans  on  April  17, 1813. 

90  [1812] 

Thuesday  the  3d  clear  and  cold  the  Boat  start- 
ed with  12  Men  at  8  A.  M.  in  the  afternoon 
a  Partizan137  (Camerad  of  Mr.  M.  L.)  of  the 
Sioux  (Sauriies)  arrived  with  19  Men,  they 
wanted  absolutely  Mr  Manuel  Lisa  to  go  with 
them  to  their  hunting  ground  and  trade  very 
hard  Gales  and  cloudy  evening  late  in  the 
Evening  Grey  head  a  Mandan  Chief  came  to 
the  fort  with  his  family. 

Wednesday  the  4th  cloudy  and  Snow  Squalls 
Mr.  M.  L.  wished  to  follow  the  Boat  by  Land 
was  prevented  by  the  Sioux,  they  were  not 
willing  to  go  home  in  the  Evening  several 
Rees  and  3  Mandans  arrived. 

Thursday  the  5th  Snow  storms  all  last  night 
until  8  this  Morning  when  it  cleared  up,  cold 

Friday  the  6th  clear  and  cold,  much  Ice  in  the 
River  the  Sioux  went  off  this  Morning  across 
the  River  fearing  to  go  on  this  side  of  the 
Rees,  Grey  head,  Rees  and  Mandan  started 
also,  and  Garrow  the  Interpreter  left  the  fort 
with  his  Wife,  on  Account  of  'a  quarrel  be- 
tween his  Wife  and  Baptist  Provost.138 

137" partizan"  meant  a  warrior,  usually,  or  the  leader  of  a  war  party. 
There  was  a  Teton  Sioux  Indian  called  Partizan  in  the  deputation 
which  came  with  Manuel  Lisa  to  make  a  treaty  of  peace  at  Portage 
des  Sioux,  Missouri,  in  1815.  This  man  had  attempted  to  stop  Lewis 
and  Clark  on  their  journey  to  the  Pacific  Ocean.  Le  Grand  Partisan, 
a  Dakota  warrior,  was  at  the  council  with  Gen.  Pike  on  the  St.  Peter's 
in  1805.  "He  was  not  a  signer,  probably  not  more  than  a  principal 
soldier,  certainly  not  a  chief."  (Minnesota  Historical  Society  Collection, 

188Jean  Baptiste  Prevot.  There  were  many  variations  in  the  spell- 
ing of  this  name,  the  most  common  of  which  were  Prevot,  Prevost,  and 
Provost.  This  man,  the  son  of  Jean  B.  and  Marie,  "a  sauvagesse  of 

[l8l2  91 

Saturday  the  yth  Baptist  Provost  was  turned 
out  the  fort  Immel  went  to  hunt  with  3  Men 
and  6  Horses,  at  n  A.  M.  Langue  de  Buche 
a  Ree  Chief  and  his  party  arrived  engaged 
Pierre  Chaine  to  hunt  for  the  fort  in  the  place 
of  Baptist  Provost,  the  River  full  of  Ice, 
clear  and  cold. 

Sunday  the  8th  Langue  de  Buche139  and  party 
went  off  to  make  his  Camp  for  winter  about 
6  miles  above  the  fort,140  at  2  P.  M.  Immel 
returned  with  Meat  of  4  Buffaloe  several 
Rees  at  the  fort,  clear  and  cold. 

Monday  the  9th,  cloudy  and  moderate,  snow 
fell  in  the  afternoon,  nothing  remarkable. 

Nation  Otto,"  was  born  in  St.  Louis,  September  10,  1773.  He  mar- 
ried in  St.  Charles,  Missouri,  October  I,  1795,  Felicit£  Cote,  daughter 
of  Alexis  and  Elizabeth  (Dodier)  Cote.  The  record  of  this  marriage 
is  the  second  in  St.  Charles,  while  his  father's  second  marriage  was 
the  first  recorded  there.  Two  children  were  born  of  this  marriage  and 
were  baptized  in  the  St.  Charles  Catholic  Church:  Jean  B.  Prevot, 
born  February  20,  1797,  and  Pierre,  born  December  4,  1798.  Prevot 
seemed  to  have  had  difficulty  keeping  out  of  jail  on  account  of  his  in- 
ability to  meet  his  debts.  On  June  21,  1816,  "Jean  Baptiste  Janot 
Provot  (by  his  mark),  in  prison  bounds  in  St.  Charles,"  gave  notice 
that  he  would  take  the  benefit  of  the  bankruptcy  act.  Two  years 
later,  at  the  instance  of  Auguste  Chouteau,  administrator  of  the  estate 
of  Paul  Lacroix,  Baptiste  Janot  Provost  was  again  confined  in  jail. 

Audubon,  in  his  Missouri  River  journals,  makes  almost  daily  ref- 
erences to  "old  Provot,"  hunter,  and  in  his  entry  of  October  18,  1843, 
is  the  following:  "Landed  at  St.  Charles  to  purchase  bread,  etc.  Pro- 
vost became  extremely  drunk  and  went  off  by  land  to  St.  Louis."  I 
am  inclined  to  think  these  two  men  are  identical.  There  was  a  Jean 
B.  Provost,  a  native  of  Canada,  living  in  Carondelet,  where  he  died 
in  1834,  aged  50  years.  In  the  St.  Louis  Directory  of  1840-41,  John 
Prevost,  "an  old  sailor,''  is  given  as  living  on  Fifth  Street  between 
Wash  and  St.  Charles. 

l&Languf  de  Biche,  or  "Elk's  Tongue,"  was  second  chief  of  the  Arika- 
ras.  After  the  death  of  Grey  Eyes,  in  the  attack  on  the  American 
trcops  and  traders,  Elk's  Tongue  took  command  of  the  war  party. 
One  chronicler  calls  him  a  *'tonguey  old  politician."  He  was  living 
with  his  people  on  the  Upper  Platte  in  1824. 

l40About  Four-Mile  Creek  in  Morton  County,  North  Dakota. 

92  [1812] 

Thuesday  the  loth,  snowed  all  night,  cleared 
up  about  8  oclock  in  the  Morning,  moderate, 
Immel  went  out  again  to  hunt  with  the  same 
Men,  Buffaloe  in  Sight,  some  Rees  arrived. 

Wednesday  the  n  clear  and  moderate,  nothing 

Thursday  the  12,  cloudy  3  Rees  which  had 
camped  with  us  last  night  went  away  dis- 
pleased getting  not  enough  to  eat  and  set 
the  Prairie  around  us  a  fire,  Immel  returned 
with  5  Cows. 

Friday  the  I3th  Papin  and  I  Man  went  to 
the  Village,  to  try  to  get  the  Rees  to  make 
a  great  Hunt  for  us.  Mr.  M.  L.  promised 
20  Loads  Powder  &  Ball  for  each  Cow 
the  Buffaloe  being  very  near  and  plenty. 
Charbonneau  returned  in  the  afternoon  from 
the  Bigbellies  and  four  of  their  head  Men 
with  him,  the  Chief  Cheveux  Loup  and  3 
others,  some  Rees  and  a  Chajenne  Chief 
(Papilliar)  arrived  in  the  Evening  with  the 
news  the  Chajenne  were  close  by  and  came 
to  trade,  traded  2  Beaver. 

Saturday  the  I4th,  cloudy  and  cold,  Papin  re- 
turned with  tidings  that  the  Rees  were  pre- 
paring to  make  war  on  us.  Baptist  Provost 
and  Garrow  had  told  them  many  Lies  and 
roused  the  Chiefs  and  Nation  against  us, 
which  proved  to  be  fact,  we  found  this  Day 
6  of  our  Horses  stolen,  2  Rees  arrived  to 
sound  us  if  we  were  inclined  for  War,  the 
Chajenne  Chief  went  to  the  Village. 

[1812]  93 

Sunday  the  I5th  This  Morning,  Immel,  Pa- 
pin  and  Charbonneau  left  this  for  the  Village, 
with  the  Bigbellies  and  3  Rees,  to  see  into  the 
Misconduct  of  those  fellows  and  try  to  settle 
amicable,  the  Rees  which  remained  at  fort, 
seemed  tranquil  and  content,  we  stopt  all 
Work  cleared  the  fort,  and  prepared  for  De- 
fence in  Case  of  Necessity,  sent  Pierre  Chaine 
&  Pointsable141  to  the  Camp  [of]  Langue  de 
Buche,  to  hear  some  news  of  the  stolen  horses. 

Monday  the  16,  last  Night  Pierre  Chaine  re- 
turned and  informed  that  the  horses  had  been 
stolen  by  the  Rees,  by  the  Order  of  Garrow 
and  were  at  the  hunting  Camp  of  Grey  Eye, 
Langue  de  Buche  arrived  this  Morning  with 
8  Men  going  to  the  Village  he  promised  to 
deliver  the  horses  in  three  Days,  and  re- 
quested Mr  M.  L.  to  be  tranquil,  Matters 
would  be  settled, — traded  some  Meat  and  I 
white  Bear  Skin  of  them — at  4  P  M.  our 
Deputies  returned  with  the  Bigbellies  accom- 
panied by  Goshe  and  Plume  d'aigle,  Garrow 
and  many  other  Rees,  to  arrange  the  Diffi- 
culties which  had  arisen,  all  was  thrown  on 
the  Shoulders  of  Baptist  Provost. 

Thuesday  the  iyth  fine  weather,  clear  and  warm, 
held  Council  and  finished  with  Peace,  two  of 
our  horses  were  brought  in  this  Morning, 
finished  the  Enclosure  of  the  fort. 

Wednesday  the  18,  fine  weather,  and  tranquil- 
ity  restored  the  Bigbellies  requested  a  trader 
and  being  promised  one,  left  this  for  their 

l4lFor  a  sketch  of  Jean  Baptiste  Point  du  Sable,  see  Appendix. 


Village,  as  also  the  Rees  very  well  satisfied, 
another  horse  was  brought  in,  Pierre  Chaine 
and  2  Men  went  over  the  River  hunting, 
Buffaloe  and  Elk  in  Sight. 

Thursday  the  I9th  clear  and  warm  little  Ice  in 
the  River  at  four  oclock  in  the  after  noon 
hung  the  great  Door  of  the  Entrance  of  the 
fort,  which  ceremony  was  saluted  by  7  Guns  - 
and  3  rounds  of  Musquetry,  made  the  Tour — 
around  the  Fort  and  Baptized  the  same 
MANUEL1*2  in  the  Evening  a  good  Supper 
and  a  cheerful  glass  of  Whisky  was  given  to 
the  Men,  and  a  Dance  at  which  all  the  La- 
dies then  in  fort  attended,  concluded  the  Day, 
Garrow  brought  his  family  to  fort  again  and 
traded  of  the  Rees  a  horse  which  had  been 
stolen  of  the  Company  last  year  by  the 

Friday  the  2oth,  clear  and  cold,  had  a  Deer 
Killed  nothing  remarkable. 

Saturday  the  21,  cloudy  Morning,  cleared  up 
at  noon  Immel  &  Papin  went  to  the  hunting 
Camp  of  Grey  Eye,  to  get  if  possible  the  re- 
mainder of  the  stolen  Horses.  Legross  came 
to  the  Fort  with  Baptist  Provost  to  explain 
his  Conduct  and  be  taken  in  favor  again. 
Provost  was  not  permitted  to  enter,  they 
blamed  Garrow  for  all  the  Mischief  which 
had  been  done,  but  went  off  without  Suc- 
cess, Immel  returned  with  only  our  Running 

142For  a  minute  and  inteiesting  description  of  trading-posts  and 
forts,  see  Chittenden's  History  of  the  American  Fur  Trade,  Vol.  I,  page 


Mare  the  other  2  horses  they  the  Indians  had 
sent  to  the  Village  loaden  with  Meat,  the 
horses  returned  were  all  ruined  and  their 
Backs  very  soar,  the  Chajenne  Chief  returned 
from  the  Village. 

Sunday  the  22d  Morning  clear  and  moderate, 
the  Chajenne  Chief  went  to  his  Village,  in 
the  Evening  our  hunters  came  to  fort,  they 
had  Killed  only  i  Cow  and  I  Deer  and  found 
very  few  Buffaloe,  evening  cold. 

Monday  the  23d  Snow  in  the  Morning,  having 
been  informed,  the  Saunie,  Sioux,  had  arrived 
with  about  150  Lodges  at  the  Rees,  Char- 
bonneau  and  Garrow  set  off  for  the  Ree  Vil- 
lage, to  Know  if  they  the  Sioux  had  any  thing 
to  trade.  Mr.  M.  L.  Immel  and  Chain  went 
to  a  band  of  Chajennes  which  were  camped 
about  5  Miles  above  the  fort,143  with  the  same 
intention  but  returned  shortly  afterwards, 
having  met  with  one  Chief  and  2  Partizans 
coming  to  pay  us  a  Visit,  and  inform  them- 
selves how  we  traded,  cleared  up  at  noon 
pretty  cold,  wind  North,  plenty  Ice  in  the 
River,  this  Day  crossed  our  horses  to  the 
other  Side. 

Thuesday  the  24th  clear  and  very  cold,  Garrow 
&  C.  returned  from  the  Sioux,  with  News 
that  they  had  nothing  to  trade  but  Meat; 
the  Chajennes  went  to  their  Camp,  and  prom- 
ised to  come  to  trade  with  what  they  had, 
five  Rees  arrived  at  fort. 

143About  Fire  Heart  Butte  in  Morton  County,  North  Dakota;  on 
Missouri  River  Commission  map. 

98  [1812] 

Wednesday  the  2$th  hard  frost  last  night,  and 
cloudy,  hawled  the  Boats  out  of  the  Ice,  this 
Evening  a  Number  of  Rees  came  to  the  fort 
to  camp. 

Thursday  the  26th,  moderate  and  cloudy,  the 
Rees  went  off,  and  our  hunters  started  with 
8  horses,  at  noon  the  Chajennes  arrived  with 
26  Lodges  and  made  their  camp  at  the  Point 
above  us,  5  of  their  Chiefs  came  to  the  fort, 
they  have  a  vast  quantity  of  horses  and  Dogs. 

Friday  the  27th  Snow  in  the  Morning  and  cold, 
plenty  Chajenne  in  the  fort,  they  invited  Mr 
Manuel  to  a  feast,  to  which  he  and  Immel 
went,  Grey  Eye  brought  the  last  stolen  horses, 
traded  some  Beaver. 

Saturday  the  28th  last  Night  the  River  closed, 
moderate  and  clear,  plenty  Visitors,  but  no 

Sunday  the  29th  cloudy  and  cold,  traded  some 
Beaver  Robes  &a. 

Monday  the  3Oth,  cloudy  and  cold,  traded  again 
one  of  our  hunters  came  in  with  the  Meat 
of  2  Cows  were  informed  by  the  Rees  that 
Mercier,  Lachapel  and  Carriere  were  Killed 
by  the  Sioux,  these  3  Men  were  trapping 
about  the  Big  bend. 

Thuesday  the  1st  of  December,  cloudy  and  very 
cold,  traded  little,  the  Chajennes  informed  us 
that  2  very  large  Bands  of  their  Nation  were 
camped  above  them,  which  would  also  come 
to  trade. 


Wednesday  the  2d  several  Mandans  arrived  and 
demanded  a  trader,  Pierre  Chaine  brought  in 
I  Cow. 

Thursday  the  3d,  cloudy  and  very  cold,  Immel 
and  3  Men  went  out  hunting. 

Friday  the  4th,  cloudy  and  cold,  Pierre  Chaine 
and  i  Men  went  out  spying  for  Buffaloe,  the 
Chajenne  Chief  (Medicine  Men)  brought  us 
I  Cow,  round,  the  5.  Chiefs  received  a  smalt 
present  and  were  well  satisfied  with  our  treat- 
ment, I  wished  to  Know  their  Names  but 
could  only  learn,  besides  the  one  named  above 
one  more,  which  was  named  the  poor  Little 

Saturday  the  5th  Pierre  Chaine  sent  in  this 
Morning  for  horses,  he  had  Killed  4  Cows, 
fine  clear  and  cold  weather  the  Meat  of  Chaine 
and  Immel  with  Meat  of  2  Cows  arrived  in 
the  Evening. 

Sunday  the  6th,  clear  and  cold.  Mr  Manuel  L. 
went  on  a  Hunting  Party  with  the  Chajennes, 
there  being  1000  of  Buffaloe  opposite,  re- 
turned at  noon  and  had  killed  12  Woahl  also 
brought  in  one  Cow,  Baptist  Provost  came 
to  the  fort  again,  Mr  Manuel  having  par- 
doned him  by  information  received,  that  it 
was  not  alltogether  his  fault,  Goshe*  and  many 
Rees  arrived. 

Monday  the  yth  cold  and  cloudy,  nothing  re- 

Thuesday  the  8.     the  same  as  yesterday. 


Wednesday  the  9th  clear  and  fine  moderate 
weather  Baptist  and  5  Men  went  out  hunting, 
Goshe  to  his  Village. 

'Thursday  the  loth  clear  as  yesterday,  nothing 

friday  the  nth  the  same,  the  Chajennes  left 
us  to  camp  and  hunt  at  the  fourth  Point  above 
us,  we  had  traded  with  them  75  Beaver,  2 
Muskrats,  4  dressd  Buff.  Skins,  7  white  Bear, 
10  Robes,  5  Otter,  3  foxes  i  wild  Cat,  450 
pair  of  Moccassins  a  quantity  of  tongues  and 
some  Meat. 

Saturday  the  12,  cloudy,  opposite  the  fort  the 
Prairie  is  covered  with  Buffaloe,  Bapt  and 
Men  arrived  this  Morning  had  Killed  4  Cows 
and  2  Bulls,  in  the  afternoon,  Baptist  An- 
toine  alias  Machecou,144  arrived  express  from 
Mr  Lewis  and  brought  the  displeasing  news, 
that  the  hunters  which  were  equipped  by  the 
Company  and  which  had  been  on  the  Span- 
ish Waters  trapping,  had  been  robbed  by  the 
Crows,  one  of  them  Danis145was  Killed  by 

l44Baptiste  Machecou,  dit  Antonio.  It  is  difficult  to  determine 
whether  this  is  an  Indian,  a  French,  or  a  Spanish  name,  or  a  corruption 
of  all  three.  The  word  Machecou  is  given  in  Hodge's  Handbook  of 
American  Indians  as  a  tribal  name  for  Creek  Indians.  Baptiste  Mach- 
ecou might  have  been  the  brother,  or  a  kinsman,  of  Pedro  Antonio,  a 
Spaniard,  who,  while  in  the  employ  of  Lisa,  was  killed  by  the  Sioux  in 
the  spring  of  1817.  This  Pedro  Antonio  lived  at  Harrison  on  the  Mer- 
imec  in  1809.  He  married  the  daughter  of  James  Head.  The  account- 
book  of  the  Missouri  Company  shows  that  Baptiste  was  with  the  Com- 
pany frorn  August,  1812,  to  April,  1813,  and  that  he  received  extra 
compensation  for  going  to  the  Crow  villages  with  Louis  Lorimier. 

146Jean  Baptiste  Danis.  Probably  of  the  Charles  Danis  family,  who 
received  the  first  grant  of  land  in  Kaskaskia  in  1722.  Jean  Baptiste 
Danis  was  fn  the  employ  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  from  its  organ- 
ization. In  1803  he  was  living  in  New  Madrid  County  near  the  present 
town  of  Portageville. 


some  Indian  supposed  Grosventres,  the  Day 
Messrs.  Lewis  &  Lorimier  arrived  at  the  little 
Horn  River,  Machecou  departed  from  the 
Little  Horn  River  in  Company  with  Du- 
roche,146  but  unfortunately  separated  2  days 
ago  in  a  Snow  Storm,  Duroche  has  the  Letters 
of  Messrs  Lewis  and  Lorimier. 

Sunday  the  I3th  cloudy,  some  Rees  (of  whom 
we  have  always  plenty  in  the  fort)  went  over 
the  River  hunting  in  the  afternoon.  Cadet 
Chevalier147  arrived  express  from  Mr  Charles 
Sanguinette  with  a  Letter  dated  the  3d  in- 
stant in  the  Prairie  on  his  Return  from  the 
Arepaos,148  in  which  he  confirmed  the  sad 
News  of  the  hunters,  he  found  none  and  was 
informed  by  the  Arepaos,  that  3  of  them  were 

M'For  a  sketch  of  Auguste  Durocher,  see  Appendix. 

l47Cadet  Chevalier  was  a  free  mulatto,  and  was  in  the  employ  of 
Joseph  Hortiz  as  a  trapper  and  trader  on  the  Great  Osage  River  from 
1802  to  1804.  There  was  a  Louis  Chevalier  with  the  Northwest 
Company  at  Lake  Nepegon,  and  it  might  well  have  been  the  same 
man.  In  1805  Cadet  was  in  the  service  of  Lisa,/  There  is  no  record 
of  administration  on  his  estate  in  St.  Louis. 

148The  Arapahoes  were  closely  associated  with  the  Cheyennes  for 
more  than  a  century.  They  called  themselves  Inunaina,  about  equiv- 
alent to  "our  people."  The  Sioux  and  Cheyennes  called  them  "Blue- 
sky  Men"  or  "Cloud  Men,"  the  reason  for  which  is  unknown.  They 
were  once  a  sedentary,  agricultural  people.  They  were  always  at  war 
with  the  Shoshoni,  Utes,  and  Pawnees  until  they  were  confined  upon 
reservations.  This  tribe  were  generally  peaceful  toward  the  whites. 
In  1892  their  reservation  in  Oklahoma  was  thrown  open  to  the  white 
settlers,  and  the  Indians  received  allotments  in  severalty  with  the 
rights  of  American  citizenship.  They  are  much  given  to  ceremonial 
observations.  The  annual  sun  dance  is  their  greatest  tribal  ceremony, 
and  they  were  active  propagators  of  the  ghost  dance  religion  a  few  years 
ago.  (Hodge,  Handbook  of  American  Indians.)  In  1828  they  numbered 
ten  thousand  souls  and  occupied  territory  extending  from  the  head  wa- 
ters of  the  Kansas  River  to  the  Rio  del  Norte.  These  Indians  were 
generally  well  formed,  slender  and  tall,  with  good  countenances. 

102  [1812] 

Killed  by  the  Blackfeet,149  supposed  Champ- 
lain150  and  2  others,  Lafargue151  and  5  others 
had  run  off  to  the  -  -  Spaniards,  8  of  them 

149The  Blackfeet  were  of  Algonquian  stock.  Gen.  Chittenden  refers 
to  them  as  "the  terrible  Blackfeet,  the  scourge  of  the  Upper  Missouri 
country."  The  heart  of  the  Blackfoot  country  was  in  the  valley  of  the 
Missouri  near  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River.  *  Under  the  general  head 
of  Blackfeet  were  included  four  distinct  bands:  the  Blackfeet  proper, 
the  Piegans,  the  Bloods,  and  the  Grosventres  of  the  Prairie,  or  Fall 
Indians.  The  Piegans  were  peaceably  disposed  to  the  whites  as  a  gen- 
eral thing,  and  the  first  successful  trading-post  established  in  the  Black- 
foot  territory  was  built  at  the  mouth  of  Maria's  River,  the  usual  habitat 
of  this  band.  The  Grosventres  of  the  Prairie,  or  Fall  Indians,  as  they 
were  generally  called,  were  the  most  relentlessly  hostile  tribe  ever  en- 
countered by  the  whites  in  any  part  of  the  West,  if  not  in  any  part 
of  America.  The  trapper  always  understood  that  to  meet  with  one 
of  these  Indians  meant  an  instant  and  deadly  fight.  The  Blackfeet 
Indians  were  of  great  importance  to  the  fur  trade  because  their  country 
was  the  richest  beaver  district  of  the  West.  These  Indians  were  well 
formed  physically,  fond  of  athletic  sports,  excellent  horsemen,  and  great 

180jEAN  BAPTISTE  CHAMPLAIN,  fils,  was  a  son  of  Jean  Baptiste  Cham- 
plain,  who  lived  in  St.  Charles  County,  Missouri,  in  1799.  Champlain, 
fils,  owned  land  in  St.  Louis  and  northwestern  Missouri,  and  appears 
in  the  records  of  St.  Louis  as  early  as  1800.  He  was  a  man  of  educa- 
tion and  probably  a  European  Frenchman.  He  went  up  the  river  with 
Lisa  in  1807,  returning  in  August,  1808,  and  would  appear  to  have  gone 
back  up  again  soon  afterwards.  On  July  6,  1808,  he  signed,  as  witness 
to  a  note,  executed  by  two  of  Lewis  and  Clark's  men,  John  Potts  and 
P.  Wyzer  (Wiser).  On  August  13,  1811,  he^gave  to  Manuel  Lisa  a 
note  in  the  sum  of  $321.00,  which  is  listed  in  Lisa's  estate  as  "note  for 
collection."  On  December  7,  1814,  Jean  Baptiste  Champlain,  Sr.,  was 
appointed  at  St.  Louis  administartor  of  the  estate  of  Jean  Baptiste 
Champlain,  Jr.,  and  gave  bond  in  the  sum  of  $2,000.  Three  days 
afterwards  the  father  made  a  will  in  which  he  says  that  he  is  a  resident 
of  St.  Louis  and  that  he  is  about  to  make  a  voyage  on  the  Arkansas 
River.  He  bequeathed  half  of  his  property  to  Pierre  Chouteau  and 
named  his  son-in-law,  Alexis  Berthelot,  as  his  universal  heir.  It  is 
possible  that  Champlain,  Sr.,  doubting  the  account  of  the  death  of 
his  son,  went  in  search  of  him  among  the  Arapaho  Indians.  The 
record  showing  that  he  returned  is  found  in  the  shape  of  a  note  exe- 
cuted at  St.  Charles,  Missouri,  April  5,  1815,  in  favor  of  August  Chou- 

[1812]  103 

had  gone  to  the  Crows  which  now  are  with 
Mr  Lewis,  and  3  or  4  others  they  knew 
nothing  off  at  all,  they  the  hunters  had  much 
Beaver  some  cached  and  the  Remainder  plun- 
dered with  all  other  things.  Mr.  Sanguinette 
requested  2  Men  to  meet  him  to  transport  a 
parcel  of  horses,  which  he  had  traded  with 
the  Arepaos, — the  Rees  brought  in  2  Cows 
they  had  Killed  3  had  to  leave  the  Meat 
having  no  horses,  more  Rees  arrived  from 
the  Village. 

Monday  the  I4th  Baptist  and  some  Men  went 
out  to  hunt,  plenty  Buffaloe  about,  prepared 
an  Equipment  for  Immel,  who  was  to  go  to 
the  Mandan  for  to  trade  at  2  P.  M.  Mache- 
cou,  Cadet  and  Colla  Glineau152  went  to  Meet 
Mr.  Sanguinette. 

teau.  Soon  after  this  time  the  father  also  died,  as  his  will  was  probated 
in  St.  Louis,  but  there  is  no  date  to  show  when  this  was  done,  nor  do 
the  court  minutes  show  any  entry  in  this  case.  On  May  31,  1816, 
Peter  Provenchere  applied  for  letters  of  administration  on  the  estate 
of  Jean  Baptiste  Champlain,  Jr.  In  his  application  he  states  that,  as 
far  as  he  knew,  Jean  Baptiste  Champlain,  Jr.,  died  without  leaving  a 
will,  and  there  were  no  heirs  or  legal  representatives  living. 

16ljean  Lafarque  probably  lived  at  St.  Charles,  Missouri,  as  there 
is  recorded  in  the  church  records  there  a  baptism  of  Jean  Baptiste 
Lafarque,  son  of  Jean  Baptiste  Lafarque,  May  31,  1818,  at  which 
time  the  son  was  seventeen  years  of  age.  Jean  Lafarque  was  with 
Manuel  Lisa  on  his  first  expedition  up  the  Missouri,  which  left  St. 
Louis  in  April,  1807.  In  May,  1800,  there  was  a  Lafarque  with 
"Senecal  [and  party]  who  were  taking  lead  to  Mr.  Pere  when  they 
were  intercepted  and  seized  by  Mr.  Dubuque  by  order  of  Mr.  Zenon 
[Trudeauj."  (Pierre  Chouteau  Maffitt  Collection  of  Manuscripts.)  La- 
farque_was  one  of  the  leaders  of  a  party  sent  by  Lisa  to  trade  on  the 
"Spanish  Waters."  He  escaped  from  the  Arapahoes,  but  was  seized 
and  imprisoned  by  the  Spaniards.  He  was  afterwards  released  and  re- 
turned to  St.  Louis  with  the  Chouteau-De  Mun  party,  September  7, 

162Nicolas  Glineau  claimed  citizenship  of  the  United  States  at  the 
time  of  his  engagement  with  the  American  Fur  Company  in  1831. 


Thuesday  the  I5th  fine  clear  weather,  Buffaloe 
constant  in  the  Prairie,  Immel  and  3  Men 
went  with  2  Sleighs  on  the  River  to  the  Man- 
dans,  had  Information  that  about  80  Lodges 
of  Sioux  had  arrived  with  the  Rees  and  still 
more  expected.  Garrow  went  to  the  Village 
to  invite  them  again  to  a  general  hunting 
Party  all  Rees  started  only  One  Men  remain- 
ing, no  News  of  Duroche. 

Wednesday  the  i6th  at  i  in  the  Morning  Gar- 
row  returned  with  the  News  that  the  Rees 
were  willing  to  come  if  their  critical  situation 
with  the  Sioux  would  allow  it  they  had  quar- 
relled together  and  expected  to  fight  a  Battle 
to  Day,  the  Sioux  wanted  to  force  and  go 
past  the  Rees,  and  camp  higher  and  nearer 
to  us,  which  the  Rees  opposed  on  Account 
of  the  Buffaloes,  the  Rees  came  and  told  us 
a  dreadful  History  which  they  had  been  in- 
formed by  the  Sioux,  as  they  sayeth,  that  the 
Sioux  had  Killed  Bijou,  and  plundered  the 
trading  house  and  were  singing  the  Cheve- 
lier153  for  the  f rench,  and  that  they  would  come 

He  was  probably  the  same  Nicolas  Glineau  who  was  a  voyagrur  at  River 
du  Sautcux,  in  the  employ  of  the  Northwest  Company  in  1804.  He 
was  also  with  the  Lisa  expedition  of  1809  and  remained  with  Henry's 
party  on  the  waters  of  the  Columbia  during  the  winter  of  1810-1811. 
He  appears  to  have  been  a  free  trader,  as  he  received  merchandise  in 
1811  valued  at  $2,168,  and  had  in  his  employ  Rene  Jusseaume  and 
Joseph  Joyal.  While  with  the  Luttig  party,  he  received  extra  pay  in 
January,  1813,  for  going  to  the  Mandans,  and  searching  for  horses; 
also  in  February  of  that  year,  for  making  another  trip  to  the  Mandans. 
For  a  time  he  was  stationed  at  the  Mandan  Posts.  In  1831  he  was 
engaged  by  the  American  Fur  Company  as  a  boatman  and  to  assist 
in  the  trade  with  the  Indians  of  the  Upper  Missouri.  He  renewed  his 
engagement  the  following  year.  I  find  no  record  of  his  death. 

wLes  Chevelures,  "The  Scalps,"  so  called  by  the  Canadians.    The 
scalp  dance  is  the   most  hideous  of  all  Indian  customs.      When  war 


to  our  fort  and  do  the  same,  if  we  would  not 
come  to  their  own  terms  trading,  and  in  Re- 
gard of  this  Histories  Mr  Manuel  resolved 
immediately  to  write  a  Letter  to  Bijou  and 
sent  it  express  by  a  Sioux  promising  a  horse 
if  an  answer  should  be  brought  to  the  Letter, 
at  ii  A.  M.  Papin  went  off  with  the  Letter. 
Baptist  sent  in  Meat  of  8  Cows,  and  the  Men 
returned  to  the  hunting  Camp,  at  Sunset  Du- 
roche  made  his  Appearance  with  the  Letters 
of  Lewis  &  Lorimier  which  gave  some  Satis- 
faction from  their  quarters  they  had  by  hunt- 
ing and  trading  12  Packs  of  Beaver  in  Store, 
and  had  purchased  ten  horses  for  their  Use. 
At  1 1  oclock  P.  M.  Papin  returned,  the  Sioux 
had  taken  the  Letter  and  promised  to  deliver 
an  Answer,  which  revived  our  hopes  that  the 
News  of  Bijou's  Death  was  not  true. 

Thursday  the  iyth  fine  moderate  weather,  in 
the  Evening  a  party  of  Rees  arrived  and 
camped  in  the  fort. 

friday  the  i8th  fine  moderate  weather,  and  in- 
deed considering  the  Season  so  far  advanced 
is  like  Spring;  we  have  had  but  very  little 
snow  and  of  late  fine  moderate  weather  so 
that  any  Work  out  of  doors  may  be  done,  at 
i  oclock  P.  M.  we  received  2  horse  Loads  of 

parties  returned  to  their  villages  after  a  victory,  they  placed  their  tro- 
phies on  the  end  of  lances  and  for  hours  would  sing  and  dance,  not  infre- 
quently reacting  in  pantomime  all  the  events  leading  up  to  the  scalping. 
Both  the  men  and  women  participated  in  this  ceremony,  with  blackened 
or  vermilion-painted  faces,  looking  like  fiends  of  darkness  let  loose, 
as  Boiler  expresses  it.  The  scalps  are  often  preserved  for  a  long  time 
stretched  upon  small  hoops,  and  the  hairs  afterwards  used  as  ornament 
to  the  dress  of  the  men. 

io6  [1812] 

Meat  say  2  Cows,  at  6  P.  M.  Goshe,  Legross 
and  several  Rees  came  to  fort,  to  make  a 
hunting  party  Mr  Manuel  Lisa  having  prom- 
ised a  horse  to  each  Chief  4  in  Number,  when 
our  horses  would  arrive. 

Saturday  the  igih  fine  clear  weather,  and  hard 
wind  all  Day,  no  hunt,  a  party  of  Chajenne 
arrived  from  the  upper  Band  with  one  Chief 
going  to  the  Rees. 

Sunday  the  2Oth,  clear  and  moderate,  our  hunter 
say  Rees  went  out  and  Killed  20  Cows  head 
and  foot  was  received  this  Evening,  purchased 
a  fine  Dog  of  the  Chajennes,  this  Evening 
the  Wife  of  Charbonneau  a  Snake154  Squaw,155 
died  of  a  putrid  fever  she  was  a  good  and  the 
best  Women  in  the  fort,  aged  abt  25  years 
she  left  a  fine  infant  girl. 

164Snake  Indians.  This  tribe  was  so  generally  known  by  this  term 
as  to  almost  obscure  the  family  name  of  Shoshoni.  "Alexander  Ross 
is  authority  for  the  statement  that  the  name  Snake  arose  from  the 
characteristic  of  these  Indians  in  quickly  concealing  themselves  when 
once  discovered.  They  seemed  to  glide  away  in  the  grass,  sage  brush, 
and  rocks,  and  disappear  with  all  the  subtlety  of  a  serpent."  (Chit- 
tenden,  History  of  the  Fur  Trade.)  Father  De  Smet  says:  "They  are 
called  Snakes  because  in  their  poverty  they  are  reduced  like  reptiles 
to  the  condition  of  digging  in  the  ground  and  seeking  nourishment 
from  roots."  These  Indians  at  one  time  occupied  western  Wyoming, 
the  entire  central  and  southern  parts  of  Idaho,  Nevada,  and  a  small 
strip_of  Utah  west  of  Great  Salt  Lake.  They  were  in  danger  of  ex- 
termination, at  the  hands  of  the  Minnetarees  and  Blackfeet,  about  the 
time  of  Lewis  and  Clark's  expedition.  The  Snakes  were  a  wandering 
tribe — necessarily  so,  as  they  depended  on  the  buffalo  and  the  salmon 
for  their  subsistence.  They  were  excellent  horsemen  and  good  war- 
riors, but  treacherous.  While  not  openly  hostile,  they  were  inveterate 
beggars  and  thieves,  and  considered  a  nuisance  by  the  traders.  They 
were  generally  at  war  with  the  Crows,  Blackfeet,  and  Utahs,  and 
allies  of  the  Nez  Perces  and  Flatheads.  It  was  in  a  battle  with  the 
Grosventres  that  Sakakawea  was  captured  by  that  tribe  and  traded 
to  the  Mandans. 

166For  a  sketch  of  Sakakawea,  see  Appendix. 

*  /      1.1 



*  i)  k 









*\ !  ni 

*   i  j>.  •*  ••  * 






<  *k 




Ml  'Is 

«,  ? 1  j  > 








^    ^\  "N    ^ 

[1812]  107 

Monday  the  2ist,  clear  and  moderate,  paid  off 
our  Indian  hunters,  and  they  left  fort  to- 
gether with  the  Chajennes  for  their  Village 
in  the  Evening,  several  Rees  came  from  the 
Mandans,  and  told  us  that  Immel  coming 
also  from  the  Mandans  had  been  robbed  and 
whipped  by  the  Band  of  Chajennes  at  the 
River  Bullet.156 

Thuesday  the  22d  fine  weather,  Garrow  and 
Papin  went  off  early  in  the  Morning  to  meet 
Immel,  at  10  oclock  A.  M.  Immel  arrived  and 
the  History  of  the  Indians  proved  to  be  a 
Lie,  it  was  true  that  he  had  a  quarrel  with 
the  Chajennes,  by  refusing  them  their  De- 
mands which  he  could  not  comply  with,  but 
they  did  forbear  being  only  a  few  to  do  harm, 
seeing  him  on  his  Guard  at  noon  the  Sleighs 
arrived  as  also  15  Mandans  with  them,  in 
the  afternoon  the  three  Men  which  were  sent 
by  Mr.  M.  L.  to  meet  Sanguinette  returned 
without  finding  him,  they  found  a  track  of 
a  party  of  Indians  and  were  afraid  to  push 

Wednesday  the  23d  fine  weather,  the  Mandans 
set  off  for  the  Rees  several  Rees  arrived  in 
the  afternoon,  all  tranquil  and  happy  in 

Thursday  the  24th  clear  and  hard  wind  but 

"•Bullet  River — Le  Boulft,  or  Cannon  Ball  River.  It  was  given 
this  name  by  Lewis  and  Clark  because  "we  found  round  stones  in  the 
form  of  cannon  balls."  It  is  a  good-sized  stream  with  two  main  forks, 
which  flow  to  its  junction  with  the  Missouri  in  Morton  County,  North 

log  [1812] 

moderate  the  Rees  went  off  again  gave  30  Ib 
flour  and  30  Ib  Tallow  to  the  Boys  for  re- 
galing themselves  tomorrow,  in  the  afternoon 
the  Chajennes  Chief  returned  from  the  Vil- 
lage he  had  heard  of  the  Affair  of  his  Village 
with  Immel,  he  was  very  sorry  fired  his  Gun 
backward  on  entering  the  house  and  prom- 
ised to  see  every  thing  arranged  to  our  Satis- 
faction, this  Evening  the  Boys  had  a  treat 
of  Whisky  and  made  merry  fired  3  Guns  at 
Sunset  in  honor  of  the  approaching  night. 

friday  the  25th  fine  moderate  weather,  indeed 
it  looks  more  like  Easter,  than  Chrismas, 
were  roused  by  a  Salute  last  Night  some  In- 
dians were  lurking  about  the  fort,  and  some 
Men  stood  guard  in  the  Bastion  they  saw 
some  thing  in  the  Dark,  fired  and  had  Killed 
an  Indian  Dog,  taking  him  to  be  an  Indian 
the  Chajennes  were  afraight  to  go  to  their 
Village  and  requested  a  guard,  Six  Volunteer 
offered  immediately  and  escorted  them  untill 
out  of  Danger. 

Saturday  the  26th,  at  four  oclock  in  the  Morn- 
ing Messrs.  M.  L.,  Immel  and  four  Men  went 
to  the  Sioux,  to  sound  their  Sentiments,  in 
the  afternoon  a  party  of  Mandans  arrived  at 
fort  with  several  Rees,  and  at  Sundown  our  par- 
ty from  the  Sioux,  they  rejected  our  friend- 
ship and  will  trade  as  they  please,  or  plunder, 
fine  weather. 

Sunday  the  27  the  weather  continuing  fine,  the 
Mandans  went  to  their  Village,  Mr  M.  L.  sent 

[1812]  109 

Colla  Glineau  along  with  them,  to  carry  some 
more  Articles  to  our  trader. 

Monday  the  28th  fine  weather,  made  up  Equip- 
ment for  Charbonneau  and  Woahl  to  go  and 
trade  with  the  Bigbellies,  Baptist  went  hunt- 
ing Killed  a  Calf. 

Thuesday  the  2Qth  Charbonneau  and  Woahl 
set  off  for  their  Stations  with  2  Men  and  4 
horses,  in  the  afternoon  we  had  the  pleasure 
to  receive  an  Answer  to  the  Letter  sent  to 
Bijou,  to  the  greatest  Satisfaction  of  Mr  M. 
L.,  Bijou  having  traded  very  well  more  than 
expected,  Antoine  Citoleux157  had  started  with 
the  Indian  from  below,  but  could  not  Keep 
up  walking  with  him  the  three  which  were 
reported  to  be  Killed  were  with  him,  and 
proved  another  made  History  of  the  Rees. 

Wednesday  the  30,  fine  weather  the  Sioux  went 
off  with  their  pay  a  horse  and  2  Carrots 

Thursday  the  3ist  Rain  this  Morning,  nothing 
remarkable  at  Sunset  saluted  the  exile  year, 
the  Boys  had  Whisky  and  a  Dance,  all  Cares 
and  troubles  were  forgotten  and  drowned  in 
oblivity  and  so  concluded  again  a  year  with, 
I  may  say,  a  cheerful  night. 

1B7For  sketch  of  Antoine  Citoleux,  dit  Langevin,  see  Appendix. 



January  the  1st,  The  new  year  was  ushered  in 
by  firing  a  Salute  and  paying  the  Compliment 
of  the  Season,  every  One  seemed  rejoiced  of 
having  lived  to  see  another  year,  fine  moderate 
weather  in  the  Evening  several  Rees  arrived, 
they  brought  a  Present  for  Mr  Manuel,  but 
he  would  not  accept  it,  I  took  it  and  paid 
pretty  high. 

Saturday  the  2d  fine  weather  and  fresh,  nothing 
to  remark. 

Sunday  the  3d  fine  weather  as  jesterday,  at 
noon  Goshe"  and  a  party  of  Rees  arrived,  car- 
rying a  Pipe  to  the  Chajennes,  and  came  to 
Council  with  Mr.  M.  L.  on  that  Subject. 

Monday  the  4th  fine  weather,  Goshe*  went  off 
Cadet  Chevalier  paid  the  Debt  of  Nature  at 
noon  he  died  of  a  putrid  fever. 

Thuesday  the  5th  fine  weather  and  moderate, 
in  the  afternoon  Antoine  Citoleux  arrived,  in 
the  Evening  a  Band  of  Rees  headed  by  Plume 
D'aigle  arrived,  carrying  a  Pipe  to  Mandans. 

Wednesday  the  6th  the  same  weather  as  yester- 
day the  Rees  left  us  and  Directly  after  I 
found  they  had  stolen  our  only  he  Cat  Tom, 
Baptist  went  hunting  at  noon  Sanguinette, 
Latour168  and  Lange159  arrived,  they  had  left 

l58Charles  Latour.  With  Charles  Sanguinet  and  Cadet  Chevalier 
he  was  sent  to  "find  the  hunters  who  were  on  the  Spanish  and  Arapaos 
rivers."  (Note,  appended  to  company's  list  of  engages.)  Latour  was 


their  horses  31  in  Number  at  the  little 
Chajenne  fork,160  prepared  for  an  Expedition 
to  the  little  Horn,  wrote  Letters  to  Lewis  & 
Lorimier,  in  the  afternoon  Baptist  brought 
in  the  Meat  of  3  Cows,  cloudy  evening. 

Thursday  the  yth  at  4  oclock  in  the  Morning, 
Duroche,  Machecou  and  Fouche'161  left  the  fort 
with  3  horses  loaden  with  Tobacco  and  Pow- 
der for  to  go  to  the  little  Horn  to  Mr  Lewis, 
cloudy  and  windy  many  Rees  passed  by,  at 
3  P.  M.  we  saw  to  our  Surprise  the  three  Men 
which  had  started  this  Morning  for  the  little 
Horn,  returning,  they  reported,  they  had  seen 

the  son  of  Amable  and  Agnes  (Menier)  Latour  of  Detroit,  and  was 
baptized  in  Detroit,  January  5,  1783.  He  married,  in  Florissant,  Mis- 
souri, January  n,  1814,  a  widow  with  six  children.  She  was  Pelagic 
Billeau,  dit  Lesparance,  widow  of  Jean  Baptiste,  and  daughter  of  Fran- 
£ois  and  Therese  (Riviere)  Marechal.  In  the  marriage  record,  Detroit 
is  given  as  his  former  residence.  Three  children  were  born  of  this 
marriage:  Agnes,  Noel,  and  Charles,  the  last-named  being  the  only 
one  who  lived  to  majority.  He  was  in  the  employ  of  Lisa  and  Droullard 
in  1807  and  until  the  St.  Louis  Missouri  Fur  Company  was  organized. 
After  his  marriage  Latour  took  up  farming  with  much  success  and 
acquired  a  small  fortune.  He  died  July  24,  1844,  on  his  farm  near 
Florissant,  Missouri.  His  widow  died  April  20,  1855,  aged  80  years. 

169Peter  Lange,  not  identified.  There  was  a  Joseph  Lange  with 
the  Northwest  Company  at  Lake  Winnepeg  in  1804. 

160The  Little  Cheyenne,  a  prairie  stream  coming  into  the  Mis- 
souri in  Potter  County,  South  Dakota,  from  the  north  side. 

16llsaac  Foucher.  The  Foucher  family  was  prominent  in  Missouri; 
Pedro  Fouche  being  the  Spanish  Commandant  at  New  Madrid  in 
1789.  I  am  somewhat  inclined  to  believe  that  the  Christian  name 
of  the  man  of  this  expedition  was  Francois,  although  the  account-book 
and  the  list  of  engages  give  it  as  Isaac.  Frangois  was  with  the  Missouri 
Fur  Company  in  1809  and  on  August  17,  1813,  he  with  Francois  Rajotte 
went  on  a  trapping  voyage  for  Chouteau,  Cabanne  &  Co.  This  man 
was  living  in  St.  Louis,  where  he  owned  some  real  estate  in  1829.  In 
1819  he  signed  a  petition  in  St.  Louis  to  aid  in  building  a  college  for 
the  "education  of  the  youth."  Francois  was  the  son  of  Michel  and 
Therese  (Leclerc),  and  married  Louise  Bertrand,  May  21,  1816.  In 
1825  he  was  in  the  Otoe  outfit  of  the  American  Fur  Company. 


something  like  Men  and  got  scared,  they 
would  not  go  on,  returned  the  Goods,  but  kept 
their  Equipments  for  the  Vojage  which  made 
their  tale  doubtful,  and  it  seemed  they  had 
had  no  Idea  to  go,  and  cheat  the  Company 
out  of  their  Goods.  Goshe*  returned  from  the 
Chajennes  stayed  at  night. 

friday  the  8,  Immel  went  early  this  Morning 
with  6  Men  after  the  horses  which  Sanguinette 
had  left,  the  Indians  Killed  6  Cows  for  us, 
and  our  hunter  2  Bulls  and  i  Deer,  the  Meat 
of  the  Bulls  is  not  good  and  it  is  only  to 
have  the  Hides  for  covering,  cloudy  and  cold. 

Saturday  the  9th  hard  wind  from  N.  W.  rain 
and  Squally  all  Day,  cleared  up  in  the  Evening 
and  cold. 

Sunday  the  loth  fine  cold  weather,  nothing  to 

Monday  the  nth  fine  and  moderate,  the  same. 
Thuesday  the  I2th,  the  same  the  same. 

Wednesday  the  13  the  same,  the  Indians  Killed 
3  Cows  towards  evening  had  a  Bull  chase  on 
the  Ice,  the  poor  Animal  when  he  found  he 
was  pursued,  fell  several  times,  and  at  last 
tired  could  not  gett  up, — surrounded  by  many 
he  awaited  his  fate  patiently  cold  and  cloudy. 

Thursday  the  I4th  cloudy  and  moderate,  In- 
dian Killed  i  Cow  a  party  Mandans  camped 
at  fort. 

friday  the  isth  the  Present  I  received  the  1st 

instant  I  had  to  throw  away  to  the  Damage 
of  114  Dollars  on  my  Side  a  Lesson  I  shall 
not  soon  forgett,  in  Evening  a  party  of  Cha- 
jennes  came  to  fort,  carrying  a  Pipe  to  the 
Rees  and  Sioux,  some  snow  fell,  but  moderate. 

Saturday  the  16,  fine  moderate  weather,  snow 
melted  away,  I  took  a  Walk  across  the  River 
where  two  of  our  Men  are  cutting  firewood, 
I  never  saw  a  finer  Spot  for  Cultivation,  a 
fine  timbered  Bottom  and  a  beautiful  Prairie 
late  in  the  Evening  two  Rees  stopped  and 
told  us  that  the  Sioux  had  commenced  war 
on  them  and  had  Killed  a  Young  Men  in 
their  own  Village. 

Sunday  iyth  fine  weather,  plenty  Indians  pass- 
ing by. 

Monday  the  i8th  fine  moderate  weather,  in  the 
afternoon  the  Chajennes  returned,  the  Rees 
were  preparing  for  war  and  summoned  all 
Men  which  were  absent  from  the  Village,  at 
Evening  a  large  party  of  Women  and  Chil- 
dren took  refuge  in  the  fort,  to  sleep  in  Se- 
curity they  were  lodged  just  above  us  in  5 
Lodges,  and  the  Men  all  absent. 

Thuesday  the  I9th  hard  wind  and  cold,  at  8 
A.  M.  Immel  &  party  arrived  with  34  horses, 
in  the  afternoon  a  party  of  Sioux  with  the 
Chief  crooked  hand  arrived  with  the  Amer- 
ican Standard  flying  before  them  they  said 
they  were  going  to  the  Chajennes  to  smoke 
which  was  a  falsehood,  when  we  first  saw 
them  the  Rees  run  to  and  fro,  crying  the 


Sioux  come  to  Kill,  and  made  a  terrible  noise, 
we  traded  32  Robes  20  Beaver,  5  Otter,  they 
went  off  at  their  favorite  time,  at  9  oclock 
at  night,  plenty  Rees  at  the  fort. 

Wednesday  the  2Oth  hard  wind  &  cloudy  all 
the  Rees  went  to  their  Village  except  2  hunt- 
ers and  their  families. 

Thursday  the  2ist  the  wind  and  weather  as 
yesterday  Latour,  Machecou,  Duroche  and  Jo- 
seph Laderoute162  were  ordered  out  of  the 
fort,  they  had  made  a  complot  against  the 
adopted  Principles  of  the  Company  Mr  Man- 
uel tried  every  way  to  gett  them  in  Employ- 
mant  but  they  would  neither  engage  nor  hunt 
nor  pay  their  Debts,  Latour  had  brought  4 
horses  from  the  Arepaos  Mr  M.  wanted  to 
buy  them  against  his  Debt,  no,  he  offered 
300  Dollars  wages  per  year  to  hunt  for  the 
forts  or  be  otherwise  employed,  they  refused, 
they  only  wanted  to  get  the  necessaries,  and 
Equipments  to  squander  away,  and  set  by 
the  fireside  at  ease  eat  our  Provision,  take  out 

162Joseph  Laderoute,  dit  Casse.  This  was  a  common  name  in  St. 
Louis  and  Kaskaskia,  Illinois.  I  think  I  have  identified  this  man  as 
Casse,  for  Laderoute,  dit  Casse  was  with  Lisa's  expedition  which  left 
St.  Louis  in  April,  1807.  He  wintered  with  Henry's  party  and  re- 
turned to  St.  Louis,  August  5,  1808.  He  was  also  engaged  as  a  hunter 
in  the  expedition  of  1809,  but  was  detained  at  St.  Charles  by  warrant 
for  the  non-payment  of  a  debt.  However,  the  Missouri  Fur  Company 
paid  it  and  he  was  released.  Two  years  later,  in  1811,  he  seems  to  have 
deserted  and  left  the  company  before  the  expiration  of  his  engagement. 
Joseph  Laderoute  accompanied  Jean  Baptiste  Trudeau  of  the  Spanish 
Company  in  June,  1794,  and  was  in  the  employ  of  Gabriel  Cerre  in 
1799.  In  the  St.  Louis  Cathedral  baptisms,  there  is  a  record  of  Emelie 
Casse,  the  three-year-old  natural  daughter  of  Joseph  Laderoute  and  an 
Indian,  who  was  baptized  April  13,  1816.  There  were  several  families 
in  St.  Louis  with  the  name  of  Rolette,  dit  Laderoute. 

of  store  when  pleased  and  lett  the  Company 
go  Destruction,  their  Character  is  throughout 
vicious  and  Dangerous,  the  Company  looses 
considerable  by  them,  say  about  4000  Dol- 
lars. Laderoute  wanted  to  take  a  girl  which 
Immel  had  given  him,  and  Immel  would  not 
permit  her  to  go  in  the  Situation  she  was  in, 
high  pregnant,  but  Laderoute  wanted  to  take 
her  by  force  like  a  Brute  without  nourish- 
ment and  cold  Season,  the  dispute  ended  by 
both  remaining,  one  of  the  Indian  hunters 
got  displeased,  on  Account  we  would  give 
him  no  meat  for  his  family,  he  sold  us  each 
Cow  for  3  Dollars  and  then  wanted  to  eat  the 
Meat,  avaricious  design,  last  night  we  saw 
plenty  fires  opposite  side  which  induced  us 
to  believe  that  the  Sioux  had  fought  with  the 
Chajennes  made  up  an  Equipment  for  Mahas 
poncas  etc. 

friday  the  22d  last  Night  Laderoute's  Girl  had 
a  little  Girl,  cold  and  cloudy. 

Saturday  the  23d,  cold  and  cloudy,  our  hunters 
went  out  and  returned  with  the  Meat  of  3 
Cows,  the  news  from  them  this  day  was  that 
a  Sioux  Chief  was  Killed  by  the  Rees,  and  a 
Ree  Woman  by  the  Sioux. 

Sunday  the  24th  Snow  and  cold,  this  Day  sent 
the  4  horses  promised  to  Rees  Chief  for  make 
a  hunt. 

Monday  the  25th  clear  and  cold,  nothing  to 

Thuesday  the  26  cloudy  and  cold,  this  Evening 


the  Men  who  guarded  the  horses  found  two 
missing  supposed  to  be  stolen  by  Langue  de 

Wednesday  the  27th  clear  and  cold  Sanguinette 
and  a  party  went  hunting,  Immel,  Papin  and 
another  party  went  to  Langue  de  Buche, 
which  as  suspected,  had  been  the  Case  as 
were  informed  that  his  party  had  stolen  the 
horses,  they  returned  in  afternoon  in  several 
parties,  one  party  found  an  Indian  who  had 
stolen  a  horse  this  Day  close  to  the  fort  of 
Colla  Glindeau,  and  Immel  seeing  another 
Savage  stealing  the  Way  of  him  suspected 
some  thing  wrong,  made  up  to  him,  and 
found  the  running  Mare  of  Mr  M.  L.  thus 
were  two  more  horses  rescued  their  report 
was  that  they  had  found  no  horses  nor  Langue 
de  Buche,  he  himself  was  gone  to  the  Cha- 
jennes  probably  to  trade  them  away  for  Meat. 

Thursday  the  28th  Mr  Manuel  L.  and  12  Men 
went  to  the  Camp  of  Langue  de  Buche,  to 
demand  the  horses,  on  their  arrival  they  took 
possession  of  the  Indian  fort  and  made  some 
shan  prissoners,  they  did  not  find  the  horses 
and  were  told  they  the  horses  were  out  hunt- 
ing, the  Indians  began  to  make  overtures  and 
begged,  promised  to  return  the  horses  to  fort. 
*Mr  Manuel  pitied  them  and  left  one  Men 
to  receive  the  horses,  who  returned  in  the 
Evening  (Mr  M.  &  party  arriving  at  noon) 
with  only  one  horse  which  belonged  to  Jes- 
saume,  the  other  not  given  up,  this  Day  fine 
clear  and  cold  weather. 

[1813]  117 

Friday  the  29th,  cloudy  in  the  Morning,  cold 
and  Snow  Squalls,  last  night  Laderoute  and 
his  girl  deserted  through  one  of  the  port 
holes  in  the  Bastion  Garrow  went  to  the  Vil- 
lage to  see  how  the  Rees  were  situated,  he 
returned  late  at  night  and  told  the  Goshe 
and  his  Band  wished  to  come  and  live  at  the 
point  above  us  if  we  would  sent  horses  to 
carry  their  Luggage,  Indians  and  hunters  went 
out  to  Day  but  Killed  nothing. 

Saturday  the  3Oth  clear  but  very  cold,  the 
hunters  went  out  again  but  returned  the 
weather  being  to  severe. 

Sunday  the  3ist,  moderate  and  clear,  Immel, 
Sanguinette  and  four  Men  with  20  horses 
started  for  the  Village,  to  bring  the  Rees  this 
Day  our  hunters  Killed  4  Cows. 

Monday  the  ist  of  Febry,  clear  and  fine  mod- 
erate weather,  in  the  afternoon  Immel  and 
party  with  Goshe*  and  4  Lodges  of  his  Band 
arrived,  but  instead  of  camping  at  point  took 
their  Lodgings  in  the  fort,  hunters  were  out 
again  to  Day  and  Killed  3  Cows  and  2  Deer. 

Thuesday  the  2d,  fine  weather,  nothing  re- 

Wednesday  the  3d  the  same,  the  Rees  went  out 
hunting  and  in  the  absence  of  the  Men  the 
Women  began  to  quarrel  among  themselves, 
and  left  the  fort  sack  and  pack,  there  being 
5  Lodges  of  wood  at  the  point  they  went 
there,  but  returned  about  10  oclock  in  the 
night,  being  afraid  of  the  Sioux,  three  Indians 

"8  [1813] 

came  to  fort  with  4  Cows,  the   remaining 
camped  out. 

Thursday  the  4th  fine  weather  and  warm,  the  2 
stolen  horses  were  brought  in,  Goshe*  and  his 
hunting  party  returned  they  had  Killed  7 
Cows.  At  4  P.  M.  12  Soldiers  of  the  Band  of 
Goshe*  arrived,  thawed  very  much  and  plenty 
water  on  the  Ice. 

friday  the  5th,  clear  and  moderate,  the  Men 
which  came  yesterday  belonging  to  Coshers 
Band  went  off  again  to  the  Village  to  bring 
their  families,  at  noon  became  cloudy  and 
heavy  Squalls  towards  evening  a  young  men 
of  the  Bigbellies  of  which  we  had  two  fam- 
ilies in  the  fort  went  out  hunting  on  foot  for 
some  deer  or  Elk,  and  about  8  oclock  P.  M. 
we  heard  the  Cry  to  Arms  and  two  guns  fired 
at  the  same  time  which  proved  to  be  out  of 
the  fort,  opening  the  Door  of  the  fort  we  found 
the  above  Young  Men  breathing  his  last,  we 
found  him  shot  in  the  Belly  and  Breast  his 
hunt  laid  a  little  ways  off,  he  had  Killed  an 
Elk  and  brought  only  the  Calf,  a  favorite 
Dish  with  the  Indians  we  expected  a  Return 
and  Kept  Guards,  the  Sioux  were  perpretators 
of  this  Act,  he  died  I  hour  after,  blew  a  hard 
gale  all  night 

Saturday  the  6th  the  wind  continuing  blowing 
very  hard  found  2  Arrows  in  the  fort  which 
had  been  thrown  through  the  Crevices  of  the 
Pickets,  the  Arrows  found  were  of  the  Sioux 
Nation,  and  had  been  leavelled  perhaps  at 
some  of  us,  a  singular  Circumstance  happened 

[1813]  119 

the  Day  before  with  the  same  young  fellow 
who  was  Killed,  he  quarrelled  with  a  Women 
the  wife  of  a  Mandan  in  the  fort,  and  was 
going  to  Kill  her,  when  her  husband  who  was 
absent  at  the  time  of  the  quarrel,  arrived  and 
being  informed  what  had  passed,  went  to  him 
if  you  want  to  fight,  do  it  with  Men  and  not 
women  come  out  and  measure  your  Bow  with 
mine  but  proved  coward,  next  Day  he  met 
his  fate,  at  2  P.  M.  our  hunters  brought  in 
5  Cows  &  2  Calfs,  a  fine  afternoon,  late  at 
Evening  Le  Gross  arrived  at  the  fort  from 
the  Chajennes,  he  reported  they  made  plenty 
Robes,  and  would  come  to  trade  in  the  Spring. 

Sunday  the  yth  disagreable  and  snowing,  Immel, 
Sanguinette,  Glineau  and  Lange  went  with 
8  horses  to  the  Mandans  to  fetch  the  Peltries 
traded  with  that  Nation,  Legross  went  with 
all  the  Bravos  which  were  in  the  fort  amount- 
ing to  26  to  the  Village,  I  made  a  Census  of 
Indians  remaining  in  the  fort  and  found  65 

souls  left  most  Women  and  Children — 

in  the  afternoon  2  more  Lodges  arrived,  fine 

Monday  the  8  fine  clear  weather  nothing  re- 

Thuesday  the  9th  the  same  the  same. 

Wednesday  the  10  the  same  but  hard  wind 
Killed  i  Elk. 

Thursday  the  nth  cloudy  and  hard  winds, 
cleared  up  in  the  afternoon,  at  9  o'clock  in 
the  Evening  we  heard  several  guns  firing,  and 

i2o  [1813] 

directly  afterwards  3  Rees  young  men  ar- 
rived, who  had  run  away  from  a  fray  which 
they  had  with  the  Sioux,  they  reported  that 
4  of  them  were  Killed,  all  Indians  in  the  fort 
in  uproar  we  watched  all  night,  but  nothing 

Friday  the  12,  clear  and  cold,  the  refugees  re- 
ported last  evening  that  a  Son  of  Goshe*,  with 
2  young  Men  and  i  Women  was  Killed,  Goshe* 
started,  Mr  Manuel  L.  gave  him  a  Blanket  % 
lb  Vermillion  and  30  Loads  of  Powder  Ball 
to  cover  the  Corps  as  customary  with  the 
Indians,  at  10  A.  M.  the  party  returned  they 
had  found  but  2  Corps  I  Men  and  I  Women, 
a  Child  which  the  Women  had  was  taken 
prisoner  and  the  son  of  Goshe*  had  found 
blind  as  he  is  the  way  in  the  woods  to  hid 
himself,  they  found  him  laying  among  the 
Brushes,  when  he  heard  himself  discovered, 
cried  out  who  is  there  and  finding  his  friends 
was  rejoiced  Goshe*  gave  him  the  Blankett 
etc  and  sent  him  off  in  the  afternoon  10  Cha- 
jenne  Chiefs  arrived  and  about  150  Rees  to 
go  to  the  Chajennes  for  Meat. 

Saturday  the  I3th  tthe  Chajenne  Chief  went 
away  seemingly  satisfied  and  the  Rees  with 
them  Mr  Manuel  Lisa  gave  5  Carrots  4  Twist 
Tobacco  3  lb  Powder  and  6  lb  Balls  as  a 
Present,  at  2  P.  M.  Immel  and  his  party  re- 
turned from  the  Mandans  with  Peltries  at  4 
P.  M.  about  50  or  60  Rees  arrived  from  the 
Village  with  Plume  D'aigle  to  bury  as  they 


said  their  slain  brethren — fine  weather  and 

Sunday  the  I4th,  cloudy  and  snow  squalls,  the 
Rees  went  off. 

Monday  the  15,  cloudy  and  cold,  the  Rees  re- 
turned from  the  Chajennes. 

Thuesday  the  i6th  clear  and  cold,  all  the 
Rees  which  had  hitherto  staid  in  the  fort 
went  off  to  their  Village  being  advised  by 
the  Chajennes  to  leave  the  fort,  only  5  Women 
and  2  Girls  remaining,  cloudy  evening. 

Wednesday,  the  17  cloudy  and  hard  winds 
nothing  to  remark. 

Thursday  the  18,  clear  and  very  cold,  Killed 
2  Deer. 

f  rid  ay  the  19  ditto — ditto   nothing  to  remark. 

Saturday  the  20  cloudy  and  cold,  in  afternoon 
Snow  Squalls  our  Sow  brought  17  Dead  Pigs, 
a  great  loss. 

Sunday  the  21  clear  and  cold,  this  day  is  the 
coldest  we  have  had  this  winter,  at  12  oclock 
this  Day  Charbonneau  and  I  Engagee  arrived 
from  the  Bigbellies,  himself  and  Woahl  had 
traded  out  of  492  Plus  only  168,  the  Chief 
named  Borne  was  thrown  off  by  the  Nation 
only  5  Lodges  remaining  with  him,  and  had  a 
seperateVillage,  he  persuaded  Charbonneau  to 
come  with  some  Powder  &a  to  his  Village  to 
trade,  he  went  and  took  25  Ib  Powder  and  50 
Ib  Ball  of  which  he  was  robbed  off  when  Char- 

122  [1813] 

bonneau  was  informed  by  the  Chief  Cheveux 
de  Loup  who  [was]  first  Chief  among  them  that 
4  or  5  Days  after  his  Arrival  from  hence  in 
December  last,  2  Men  from  the  N.  W.  Com- 
pany had  been  with  them,  they  came  under 
pretext  to  trade  dressd  Buffaloe  Skins,  and 
made  some  Presents  to  the  Chiefs,  and  began 
to  harangue  against  the  american  traders, 
told  them  we  would  give  them  nothing,  but 
a  little  powder,  and  that  they  the  N.  W. 
Company  would  furnish  them  with  every 
thing  without  Pay  if  they  would  go  to  war, 
and  rob  and  Kill  the  Americans,  this  had  the 
desired  effect  on  Borne,  and  he  made  several 
Speeches  to  the  Nation  to  that  purpose,  but 
being  disgraced  and  not  liked  he  retired  with- 
out Success,  though  himself  fulfilled  his  prom- 
ise to  rob,  but  was  afraight  to  Kill,  thus  are 
those  Bloodhounds  the  British  constantly  em- 
ployed and  do  every  thing  in  their  Power  to 
annoy  and  destroy  the  Americans  and  their 
trade,  they  have  nothing  to  fear  on  Account 
and  in  Respect  of  our  Government,  all  though 
in  our  territories,  and  in  fact  our  Government 
does  not  care  to  meddle  with  them,  nor  how 
many  Citizens  are  sacrificed  by  the  British 
influence  with  the  Indians,  if  there  was  a  fort 
at  the  River  St  Peters163  as  was  promised  by 

l88Eight  years  farther  along  the  United  States  Government  did  ful- 
fill its  promise.  In  1820  the  5th  United  States  Infantry,  under  the 
command  of  Col.  Henry  Leavenworth,  was  sent  to  establish  a  military 
fort  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Peter's  River  (now  called  the  Minnesota). 
The  cantonment  was  first  called  Fort  Anthony,  but  was  later  officially 
given  the  name  of  Fort  Snelling.  The  object  of  this  military  expedi- 
tion was  the  protection  of  the  northwestern  frontiers  against  ^  Indian 
attacks,  and  to  check  the  influence  of  the  British  traders  with  the 

[1813]  123 

Liet  Pike164  and  another  in  these  Parts  of 
the  Missouri,  it  would  do  infinitively  good  to 
hunters  and  traders,  and  bring  great  wealth 
to  the  States,  but  this  is  out  of  question, 
they  have  a  strong  Garrison  at  Bellefontaine, 
and*  that  is  enough,  the  soldiers  parade,  eat 
and  drink  and  spent  their  time  in  Idleness, 
is  there  any  necessity  to  keep  so  many  idle 
fellows  in  a  settled  Country,  they  do  not  even 
prevent  and  cannot  protect  our  Settlers  about 
80  or  90  Miles  above,  and  we  have  seen  out- 
rages committed  by  the  Indians,  horrid  to  re- 
late, there  was  after  the  Sheep  were  destroyed 
by  the  Wolves,  a  small  Garrison  errected  on 
Salt  River,  Mississippi165  which  will  do  more 
good  than  all  Bellefontaine,  and  if  one  was  to 

Indians.  The  movement  had  a  stimulating  effect  and  the  fur  trade 
was  considerably  extended.  (See  Journal  of  S.  W.  Kearny  in  Mis- 
souri Historical  Society  Collections,  Vol.  3,  p.  8.) 

l64Zebulon  M.  Pike  was  born  in  Lamberton,  New  Jersey,  January  5, 
1779.  After  the  purchase  of  the  Louisiana  Territory,  Pike,  who  was 
then  a  lieutenant  in  the  United  States  Army,  was  placed  in  command 
of  an  expedition  sent  to  trace  the  Mississippi  River  to  its  source.  In 
1806-1807  he  was  engaged  in  geographical  explorations  in  the  Louisi- 
ana Territory,  and  while  on  this  expedition  he  discovered  "Pike's 
Peak"  in  the  Rocky  Mountains.  When  he  reached  the  Rio  Grande 
he  was  taken  by  the  Mexicans  to  Santa  Fe  and  later  to  Chihuahua, 
from  whence  he  returned  home.  After  his  return  to  the  United  States 
he  was  given  the  rank  of  major,  and  a  few  years  later  he  published 
a  narrative  of  his  two  expeditions.  He  received  his  appointment  as 
brigadier-general  March  12,  1813,  and  on  April  27  of  that  year  was 
killed  by  the  explosion  of  the  magazine  at  York  (now  Toronto),  Canada  . 
Pike  County,  Missouri,  was  named  in  his  honor. 

W6During  the  winter  of  1811-1812,  the  settlements  on  the  Salt  River 
and  in  the  Boone  district  were  kept  in  constant  terror  by  the  Indians. 
Murders  were  frequent  and  the  settlers  suffered  all  the  dreadful  effects 
of  Indian  warfare.  By  command  of  Gov.  Benjamin  Howard  a  small 
fort  was  erected,  early  in  1812,  on  the  Mississippi  River  about  fifteen 
miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Salt  River,  not  far  from  the  present  site 
of  Hannibal,  Missouri.  It  was  garrisoned  by  a  body  of  regular  troops 
detached  from  Fort  Bellefontaine,  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  John 
Mason,  in  whose  honor  it  was  called  Fort  Mason. 


be  erected  about  500  Leagues  up  the  Missouri 
it  would  be  very  good  to  Keep  the  Indians 
in  their  Bounds,  Provisions  are  plenty  and  the 
other  necessaries  could  be  sent  by  the  traders, 
but  it  has  been  frequently  the  Case,  and  has 
been  said  our  Citizens  have  no  Business  to  go 
among  the  Indians  to  trade  but  the  profits 
thereof  are  not  considered,  and  this  Branch  of 
Business  will  never  succeed  if  not  protected  by 
Government,  to  seat  of  the  British  Traders. 
When  Charbonneau  passed  the  Chajennes 
which  are  above  us  about  4  Leagues,166  they 
warned  him  to  be  cautious  and  take  care  of 
his  Life,  that  they  had  discovered  27  Men 
lurking  about,  supposing  to  be  the  Saunies 
Sioux,  he  arrived  however  without  accident. 

Monday  the  22d  fine  weather  and  cold  some 
Buffaloe  in  Sight,  7  Men  went  across  the 
River  to  hunt,  and  returned  about  noon,  hav- 
ing Killed  but  i  Cow  2  Bulls  the  weather  be- 
ing to  cold,  to  pursue  the  Buffaloe,  at  I  oclock 
45  Mi.  P.  M.  we  were  alarmed  by  the  Cry 
to  Arms,  Archambeau167  is  Killed,  and  by  sort- 
ing found  us  surrounded  by  Indians  on  all 
Sides,  out  the  reach  of  our  Guns,  Archambeau 
was  hawling  hay  with  a  Sleigh  from  the  other 
Side,  and  just  on  coming  on  the  River  he 
was  shot  and  Killed  Immediatly  he  was  a 

distance  would  bring  the  Cheyennes'  camp  about  the  present 
Fort  Yates,  North  Dakota. 

167Lpuis  Archambeau.  Probably  one  of  the  Canadian  family  of  that 
name  living  in  Florissant,  Missouri,  in  early  days.  There  are  descend- 
ants of  that  family  still  living  in  St.  Louis  County,  but  I  have  been  un- 
able to  learn  anything  about  Louis,  or  identify  him  with  the  several 
of  that  name  in  Tanguay's  Dictionnaire. 

[1813]  125 

very  good  Men  and  had  been  6  years  on  the 
Missouri,  we  put  ourselves  immediatly  in  De- 
fence, and  placed  two  swivels  on  the  Bank 
of  the  River,  but  unfortunaly  our  Balls  did 
not  reach  across,  and  those  on  this  Side  Kept 
out  of  Reach  of  our  fire,  and  dare  not  come 
to  an  open  Attack,  their  Numbers  was  be- 
tween 4  a  500,  they  took  the  Scalp  and  cut 
him  nearly  to  pieces,  they  marched  off  about 
4  oclock,  leaving  us  to  lament  the  Death  of 
fellow  Citizen  unrevenged,  a  party  of  our 
Men  went  across  to  bring  the  Corps  which 
they  found  terrible  mangled,  they  brought 
29  Arrows  which  were  sticking  in  his  body 
and  a  good  many  more  had  been  brocken  to 
pieces,  his  Head  Broken  the  Brains  scattered 
about  his  nose  and  ears  cut  off,  his  teeth 
Knocked  out,  and  more  terrible  Deeds  which 
I  will  not  express  with  my  Pen.  We  mustered 
in  the  Evening  and  found  ourselves  26  Men 
strong,  selected  Guards  for  to  night,  divided 
in  5  Watches,  4  Men  in  each  and  2  in  each 
Bastion,  gave  the  Boys  a  Dram  and  every 
one  was  in  Readiness  for  defence  to  the  last 
Moment  our  situation  in  general  is  not  very 
pleasing  at  this  time  menaced  by  the  Sioux, 
below,  and  we  dare  not  trust  too  much  to 
Chajennes  above,  they  have  made  a  vast 
quantity  of  Robes  and  wish  to  augment  the 
trade  we  are  told  and  they  shewed  a  Horn 
which  they  made  which  holds  40  Loads  of 
Powder,  instead  of  giving  20  Load  for  a  Plus,168 

168Every  skin  had  an  established  value,  with  which  all  traders  were 
acquainted.  A  first-class  beaver  skin,  worth  in  the  neighborhood  of  six 
dollars,  was  called  a  ''plus." 


I  hope  we  will  have  no  Row  with  them  as  to 
the  Rees  we  fear  nothing,  they  are  a  sett  of 
lying  and  good  for  nothing  fellows. 

Thuesday  the  23d  passed  a  quiet  night,  and  our 
Guards  saw  nothing,  after  Breakfast  Immel 
and  four  Men  went  out  reconnoitring  on  swift 
horses,  returned  at  noon  and  reported  they 
had  found  the  tracks  of  the  war  party  and 
judged  by  the  Size  of  the  Road  they  had  made 
to  have  been  about  400,  the  Road  went  right 
across  the  Hills  and  the  party  which  was  sta- 
tioned above  the  fort  say  about  60  had  met 
them  at  right  angles,  about  2  Miles  west  of 
the  fort,  we  interred  the  Remains  of  our  poor 
fellow  Citizen  Archambeau,  and  guarded  in 
the  afternoon  saw  some  Buffaloe  chased  on 
the  other  Side,  supposed  by  the  same  Party, 
we  also  saw  Dogs  on  the  Ice  which  returned 
to  the  Woods  at  the  point  above  us,  and 
made  us  certain  there  was  some  hid  in  the 
Woods,  as  also  by  a  track  which  we  found, 
descending  the  Coast  on  our  Side  I  Mile  be- 
low the  fort,  set  guard  for  the  Night  had  a 
fine  Day  but  cold  and  cloudy  evening. 

Wednesday  the  24th  passed  a  tranquil  night, 
but  saw  some  running  fires,  the  Signal  of  In- 
dians after  Battle,  3  Men  went  to  Langue 
de  Buche's  Camp  to  hear  of  their  Situation 
a  fine  Day  but  cold,  set  all  our  Dogs  out  of 
fort  for  guard. 

Thursday  the  25th  passed  a  quiet  night,  I  guard- 
ed till  4  oclock  in  the  morning  the  3  Men 

[1813]  127 

went  out  yesterday  did  not  Return,  Dogs  out 
guarding,  dark  and  cloudy  evening. 

Friday  the  26th  snowed  last  night  and  this 
Morning  we  are  constant  watching  in  our 
careful  Situation,  we  hear  and  see  nobody 
from  all  around  us,  and  are  like  Prisoners  in 
Deserts  to  expect  every  moment  our  fate. 

At  3  oclock  P.  M.  our  3  Men  returned  with 
Machecou,  the  whites  and  Indians  who  camp 
above  us  had  heard  nothing  of  the  fracas 
which  had  happened,  the  Chajennes  had  the 
next  Day  after  the  affair,  24  horses  stolen  by 
the  Sioux,  undoubtedly  the  same  party  who 
attacked  us  there  Scheme  was  to  plunder  the 
fort,  expecting  that  we  would  divide  and  a 
party  would  run  across  the  River  to  rescue  the 
Man  which  was  Killed,  and  then  come  be- 
tween us  and  plunder  and  Kill  those  in  the 
fort,  cleared  up  towards  evening  and  cold. 

Saturday  the  27th  passed  another  tranquil  Night 
cloudy  at  Sunrise,  cleared  up  at  8  A.  M.  cold 

Sunday  the  28,  Snowed  last  night  and  this 
Morning  the  most  which  has  fell  this  Winter 
about  4  Inches  deep,  cleared  up  in  the  after- 
noon with  cold  weather,  nothing  remarkable 
these  2  Days  past. 

Monday  the  ist  of  March,  1813,  clear  and  cold, 
after  dinner  Charbonneau  and  Leclair169  set 
off  for  their  Stations  at  the  Bigbellies  took 

169Joseph  Leclaire,  or  Leclair.    There  were  several  Leclaires  in  St. 
Louis  about  this  time,  one  of  whom  was  a  free  mulatto. 

128  [1813] 

some  Powder  and  Ball  to  compleat  his  Equip- 
ment, they  were  escorted  by  5  of  our  Men, 
untill  he  would  be  out  of  Danger,  at  Sunset 
it  began  to  Snow. 

Thuesday  the  2d  a  vast  deal  of  snow  had  fell 
last  night,  but  was  clear  and  cold  in  the 
Morning,  cloudy  afternoon,  at  2  P.  M.  7 
Men  and  2  Women  of  the  Rees  arrived  at 
the  fort,  the  first  which  made  their  appear- 
ance since  Goshe*  left  us,  4  Men  i  Women 
went  to  Langue  de  Buche  the  others  remained. 

Wednesday  the  3d,  clear  and  cold,  the  Indians 
which  arrived  yesterday  said  that  the  upper 
Village  of  the  Rees  would  come  this  Day  to 
trade,  which  however  proved  to  be  a  lie,  at 
noon  7  Rees  arrived  from  above,  as  also  our 
party  which  had  escorted  Charbonneau,  with 
Latour,  Machecou,  Duroche  and  Laderoute,  2 
Squaws  and  3  Children,  a  party  of  Men  went 
over  the  River  to  cut  firewood,  had  a  fine 
warm  Day  and  cloudy  evening. 

Thursday  the  4th  last  night  about  3  inches  of 
snow  had  fell  cloudy  and  cold  Morning,  in 
the  afternoon  4  Mandans  arrived  from  their 
village  on  their  way  to  the  Rees,  no  news. 

friday  the  5th — Snowstorm  last  night  and  con- 
tinued snowing  all  this  Day,  the  Mandans 
pursued  their  Route. 

Appendix  129 



St.  Louis,  June  I,  1815. 
Mr.  John  C.  Luttig  (Per  A.  Pourcelli), 

Dear  Sir: 

I  received  your  favors  by  Antoine  on  the  27th  April  and  should  have 
sent  him  sooner,  had  we  not  been  making  useless  searches  for  the  black 
Mare  in  the  prairies,  the  sorrel  &  Rone  I  sold  since,  the  former  for 
$35.  and  the  latter  for  $30.  which  does  not  pay  their  keeping — nor  amf- 
I  yet  paid  for  them.  I  would  therefore  advise  no  more  horse  specula- 
tions— annex  your  Invoice  of  sundries  Antoine  has  with  him  on  the 
Mare — had  I  the  remaining  articles  you  sent  for,  would  have  sent  you 
them — but  not  having  them  (nor  the  money  to  buy  them  with)  pre- 
vents my  so  doing.  I  conceive  this  manner  of  transportation  a  very 
unprofitable  one — have  paid  Antoine  $75.17  for  wages  at  $25.  per  month, 
which  eats  up  the  profit  on  such  small  Invoices — would  it  not  be  less 
expensive  to  send  goods  down  the  Mississippi  to  Cape  Girardeau  & 
let  your  wagons  make  a  back  load  of  them  when  you  send  a  load  of  Fur? 
I  am  of  opinion  it  would  be  cheaper  than  to  send  them  in  a  boat  & 
certainly  more  expediting  &  less  dangerous.  I  have  accepted  your  order 
in  favor  of  McMines  for  $364.22  which  I  am  obliged  to  let  lie  unpaid 
for  want  of  funds.  I  must  in  future  protest  against  your  drawing  on 
me  in  this  way.  I  am  yet  considerably  out  in  this  store  &  my  other 
branches  of  business  requiring  all  the  funds  I  can  raise.  I  expect  some 
few  goods  by  the  time  you  come  here  with  the  mulatto  girl  you  have 
bought,  for  which  purpose  I  enclose  you  the  $430.  which  I  have  found 
difficult  raising — the  sooner  you  send  her  back  the  better,  I  am  much 
in  want  of  a  girl.  I  have  been  pestered  to  get  somebody  to  pay  the 
freight  of  peltries  sent  to  Louisville,  it  might  be  best  to  send  them  here. 
I  fear  venison  Hams  will  not  bring  much  in  Louisville.  I  have  not 
yet  received  the  Tallow  &  buffalo  meat — were  [where]  venturing  is 
done  judiciously  it  is  sometimes  commendable,  but  when  you  have  to 
pay  cash  it  disappoints  me — consider  my  Dear  Luttig  was  any  accident 
to  befall  you  what  would  be  my  losses,  were  you  to  have  the  business 
scattered.  I  hope  and  expect  considerable  remittances  from  you  shortly, 
recollect  they  are  long  due  by  promise.  I  can  say  little  about  your 

130  Appendix 

land  speculations  but  hope  your  payments  have  been  in  goods  on  which 
you  have  laid  a  good  profit.  James  Kennerly  does  not  think  much 
of  that  country — you  should  rent  all  your  lands  out,  tis  bad  policy 
to  let  them  lie  idle — 'the  Governor  tells  me  you  cannot  get  a  lease  with- 
out the  land  is  surveyed  for  a  lead  mine — 'the  piece  of  mineral  you  sent 
me  by  Antoine  is  of  an  excellent  quality,  but  who  is  this  Colonel  in 
whose  name  you  want  the  lease.  I  don't  like  partners  with  whom  I 
am  not  acquainted  &  advise  you  to  be  careful  of  strangers — Tar  will 
not  bring  here  more  than  50  cts  per  gallon  by  the  barrel,  which  will 
•not  pay  the  transportation.  I  am  afraid  your  Buffaloes  will  cost  a 
good  [deal]  by  the  time  they  get  here,  if  your  fish  are  the  real  Trout 
&  you  can  put  them  up  to  keep,  they  would  answer — -better  send  only 
one  barrel  the  first  time  to  try  them,  hope  the  girl  will  prove  a  good 
one,  she  is  certainly  cheap — may  be  she  is  stolen  property — Racoon 
from  your  country  will  not  bring  62^c  in  Kentucky,  it  is  only  those 
from  the  Illinois,  one  of  which  is  worth  two  of  yours — I  am  not  disposed 
to  buy  Racoon  nor  have  I  the  money — may  your  blacksmith  earn  his 
wages — if  yOU  can  buy  a  cheap  Boy  for  trade  as  cheap  as  the  Girl  do 
so,  of  about  the  same  age.  I  cannot  send  you  tumblers,  they  would 
inevitably  get  broken, — the  Summons  &  Executions  I  send  you — I  am 
glad  you  sold  the  Race  Mare  &  should  be  more  so  were  my  manors 
to  yield  the  income  of  some  such  as  there  is  in  England — Paston  has 
been  away  &  has  paid  nothing,  he  is  expected  shortly — Solomon  has 
not  paid  the  Note  &  has  sold  his  Horse — I  send  in  addition  to  the 
other  articles  a  coat  &  pantaloons,  some  expect  your  wedding  ones — 
Good  assortment  of  Goods  are  very  scarce  here,  one  or  two  old  Ken- 
tucky shopkeepers  have  come  on  here — Beef  must  necessarily  come  so 
high  with  you  before  it  is  barreled  up,  that  it  could  not  be  afforded 
so  low  as  from  Kentucky,  from  where  immense  numbers  of  Boats  have 
gone  to  Orleans  this  Spring  which  will  overstock  it — I  should  prefer 
those  fellows  of  yours,  loading  you  with  Bank  notes  than  their  willing- 
ness to  accompany  you  through  the  lower  regions — I  send  you  Levantine 
silk  which  is  much  better  &  handsomer  than  changeable — you  should 
get  #4  the  yard  for  it — if  you  have  nothing  for  Antoine  to  do,  is  it  not 
better  to  discharge  him? 

Remain  with  esteem 

Yours  to  serve, 


Appendix  131 

St.  Louis,  July  26,  1815. 
Mr.  John  C.  Luttig, 

Dear  Sir: 

I  have  reed,  your  favor  of  3rd  inst.  brought  I  suppose  by  Smith 
who  I  have  not  seen — yours  by  Ferguson  of  the  2nd  Inst  I  also  re- 
ceived— I  fear  those  settlements  will  prevent  your  friend  making  re- 
mittances without  which  I  cannot  think  of  sending  you  further  supplies. 
The  things  you  sent  by  Duncan  I  fear  are  lost,  he  arrived  at  Louisville 
about  two  weeks  before  Cromwell  who  had  money  to  pay  his  freight, 
not  finding  any  person  there  to  pay  him  the  freight  he  offered  the  ar- 
ticles for  sale  but  could  not  sell  &  continued  on — this  Cromwell  wrote 
me  from  Louisville  he  could  hear  nothing  of  him  up  the  River,  although 
he  made  inquiries — I  have  since  heard  that  Duncan  sold  the  articles- 
at  Vendue  for  little  or  nothing — Racoon  for  about  6  cents — I  know  not 
as  to  the  truth  of  it.  Duncan  left  no  Tallow  at  the  mouth  of  Ohio- 
for  me — nor  anything  else — I  cannot  agree  to  your  purchasing  settle- 
ment rights,  it  will  require  cash  to  purchase  them  afterwards  &  I  can 
do  better  with  my  funds  by  applying  them  to  my  business — which  is 
suffering  for  want  of  them — as  you  expect  to  be  here  soon,  we  may 
make  some  arrangements  for  further  supplies,  I  have  not  sufficient 
dependence  in  Smith  to  send  by  him — wish  you  to  send  the  girl  immedi- 
ately if  you  do  not  come  yourself  you  can  send  her  by  some  careful 
person — having  been  somewhat  indisposed  of  late,  I  have  not  called 
on  Dr.  Simpson — the  person  that  is  to  take  this  letter  is  at  Shope's,  I 
dont  know  who  it  is.  Remain  as  ever 

Yours  to  serve 

St.  Louis,  July  3Oth,  1815. 
Mr.  James  Moore, 

Dear  Sir: 

I  have  received  your  favor  of  July  20th  by  your  son — with  sundry 
books  and  papers  announcing  the  death  of  John  C.  Luttig  who  had 
my  business  in  charge,  so  far  as  selling  of  goods  and  making  me  re- 
mittances for  them.  His  death  to  me  is  a  considerable  misfortune  & 
for  your  friendly  intercession  in  taking  care  of  the  store  &c.  &  in 
advising  me  thereof  accept  my  sincere  thanks.  I  shall  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible send  a  person  to  close  the  business  &  will  thank  you  until  that 
person  arrives  to  request  A.  Pourcelli  to  remain  there — none  of  the  goods 

132  Appendix 

must  be  allowed  to  be  taken  until  said  person  arrives.  Any  future 
services  you  may  render  me  in  the  business  will  be  remembered  by  me. 
In  haste  Remain  very  respectfully 

your  most  obedient  servant, 


SAKAKAWEA  (or  Sacajawea,as  she  is  better  known),  the  Snake  squaw 
of  Charbonneau,  the  guide  and  interpreter  for  Lewis  and  Clark,  has 
been  idealized  by  artist  and  sculptor,  by  poet,  fiction  writer,  and  his- 
torian. Some  writers  have  claimed  that  without  her  guidance  and 
assistance  the  expedition  of  Lewis  and  Clark  would  have  failed;  and 
still  others  have  said  that  her  importance  has  been  exaggerated,  and 
that  she  was  of  no  particular  assistance,  except  to  perform  feminine 
duties,  such  as  the  mending  of  the  moccasins.  Choose  what  accounts 
we  may,  it  will  be  agreed  by  all  that  the  mention  of  this  expedition 
immediately  brings  to  mind  the  part  which  this  lone  woman  played. 
The  leaders  of  that  expedition  have  indicated  that  no  member  of  the 
party  gave  more  effective  service,  and  she  seems  to  have  been  the 
direct  means  on  several  occasions  of  overcoming  seemingly  insurmount- 
able obstacles.  Her  sacrifices  were  many,  and  they  seem  quite  pathetic 
when  one  considers  that  she  was  but  a  child  in  years. 

It  would  be  superfluous  to  tell  the  story  of  her  early  life,  her  capture 
by  the  Grosventre  Indians,  when  she  was  about  ten  years  old,  the 
barter  to  Charbonneau  and  her  subsequent  marriage  to  him;  or  to 
recount  in  detail  the  part  she  took  in  that  famous  expedition — everyone 
is  familiar  with  it.  The  question  here  is,  What  are  the  points  of  contrast 
between  this  journal  and  the  various  biographies  of  this  conspicuous 
woman  of  the  Indians? 

It  may  be  interesting  first  to  note  that  there  has  been  much  dis- 
cussion and  argument  as  to  the  spelling  and  proper  pronunciation  of 
her  name.  I  am  choosing  the  version  of  Dr.  Washington  Matthews, 
a  recognized  authority  on  the  ethnology  and  philology  of  the  Hidatsa 
Indians,  he  having  published  a  grammar  and  dictionary  thereof;  and  of 
Rev.  C.  L.  Hall,  who  lived  among  this  tribe  for  thirty  years. 

According  to  Rev.  C.  L.  Hall,  Sacajawea,  the  form  which  has  been 
so  generally  used,  is  a  Shoshoni  word,  meaning  "Boat-launcher."  His 
theory  is  that  "while  her  captors  gave  her  a  name  which  may  have 

Appendix  133 

been  a  translation  of  her  Shoshoni  name,  it  is  more  likely  to  have  been 
entirely  different.  A  stranger  coming  among  the  Grosventre  tribe,  or 
any  tribe  of  Indians  that  I  know,  received  at  once  a  name  such  as 
may  suit  their  fancy."  He  therefore  concludes  that  the  name  is  prop- 
erly Sakakawea,  which  in  the  Hidatsa  language  of  the  Grosventre  is 
"Bird  Woman."  She  has  always  been  referred  to  as  the  Bird  Woman, 
and  not  as  the  Boat-launcher,  as  Sacajawea  is  interpreted. 

The  journal  here  published  differs  from  other  accounts  as  to  the  time 
of  her  death.  It  describes  the  wife  of  Charbonneau,  a  Snake  squaw, 
as  having  died  December  20,  1812.  Charbonneau  probably  had  two 
Snake  wives,  as  "two  squaw  prisoners  from  the  Rock  Mountains  and 
purchased  by  Charbonneau"  visited  the  winter  camp  of  Lewis  and 
Clark  at  the  Mandan  village.  One,  of  course,  was  the  Bird  Woman, 
and  James  Schultz  says  that  the  name  of  the  other  was  Otter  Woman, 
and  that  she  died  shortly  after  the  return  of  the  expedition. 

Brackenridge,  in  his  journal  of  a  voyage  up  the  Missouri  in  1811, 
tells  us  that  he  met  "a  Frenchman  named  Charbonet  and  his  Indian 
wife,  who  had  accompanied  Lewis  and  Clark  to  the  Pacific.  The 
woman,  a  good  creature,  of  a  mild  and  gentle  disposition,  greatly  at- 
tached to  the  whites,  whose  manners  and  dress  she  tries  to  imitate, 
but  she  had  become  sickly  and  longed  to  revisit  her  native  country; 
her  husband  also,  who  had  spent  many  years  amongst  the  Indians,  was 
become  weary  of  a  civilized  life." 

Several  times,  we  are  informed  by  the  journals  of  Lewis  and  Clark, 
Sakakawea  was  dangerously  ill.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  the  hardships 
this  frail  child-woman  endured  following  her  capture,  and  again  on  that 
long  journey  to  the  Far  West,  shortened  her  life,  and  on  that  "clear 
and  moderate  Sunday,"  December  2Oth,  1812,  she  died,  leaving  a  fine 
infant  girl,  called  Lizette,  as  well  as  the  boy  Toussaint.  Luttig,  in 
his  laconic  way,  says  she  was  a  good  woman — the  best  in  the  Fort. 
A  characterization  given  her  by  all  historians. 

Luttig,  who  seems  to  have  had  nothing  but  contempt  for  Char- 
bonneau, brought  the  infant  girl  down  to  St.  Louis  in  June,  1813,  and 
possibly  Toussaint  also,  although  the  latter  may  have  been  left  at 
St.  Louis  in  1811,  when  Charbonneau  and  the  Bird  Woman  returned 
to  the  Mandan  village.  On  the  nth  day  of  August,  1813,  Luttig 
applied  to  the  Orphans'  Court  at  St.  Louis  for  appointment  as  guardian 
of  the  infant  children  of  Toussaint  Charbonneau,  deceased;  namely, 
Toussaint,  a  boy  about  ten  years  old,  and  a  girl,  Lizette,  about  one 

134  Appendix 

year  old.  Whether  he  ever  served  as  such  there  is  no  record,  for  the 
one  entry  in  the  Court's  minutes  shows  that  the  name  John  C.  Luttig 
was  crossed  out  and  William  Clark  substituted.  (See  facsimile  of  court 
record.)  My  conjecture  is  that  Luttig,  knowing  the  fondness  of  Gov. 
Clark  for  Charbonneau  and  his  family,  brought  one  or  both  of  the 
children  to  St.  Louis  after  the  death  of  Sakakawea  and  the  disappear- 
ance of  Charbonneau.  Upon  his  arrival  in  St.  Louis,  Clark  was  absent 
from  the  town,  so  Luttig  made  application  for  guardianship.  Gov. 
Clark  would  have  come  closer  to  Toussaint's  age  in  making  the  ap- 
plication, wherein  Luttig  missed  it  about  two  years. 

Sakakawea  is  known  to  have  had  a  boy  by  Charbonneau,  about 
eight  years  of  age  at  this  time,  and  it  is  also  known  that  she  would 
have  been  approximately  twenty-five  years  of  age  in  1812,  when  Luttig 
recorded  the  death  of  the  Snake  squaw  of  Charbonneau.  This  and 
other  things  point  to  Sakakawea  as  the  Indian  wife  referred  to.  In 
passing  it  should  be  recalled  that  Charbonneau  was,  in  fact,  not  dead 
at  that  time. 

In  Gov.  Clark's  letter  of  August  20,  1806,  he  clearly  mentions  two 
boys,  children  oi  Charbonneau.  One  he  refers  to  as  "your  little  son 
(my  boy  Pomp)"  and  the  other  he  calls  "my  little  dancing  boy  Ba- 
tiest."  The  dancing  boy  was  too  old  to  be  the  child  of  Sakakawea 
whose  birthday  has  been  established.  Therefore  Baptiste  and  Tous- 
saint  are  not  one  and  the  same  individual.  Jean  Baptiste  Charbonneau 
was  most  likely  the  Baptiste  mentioned  in  this  letter  and  the  son  of 
Charbonneau  by  one  of  his  other  wives,  who  with  her  child  was  at  the 
Mandan  Fort  in  the  winter  of  1804-1805.  The  accounts  of  Clark,  as 
Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  for  1820,  show  that  tuition  was  paid 
that  year  to  J.  E.  Welch  for  one  J.  B.  Charbonneau,  and  to  Francis 
Neil  for  one  ToussaSnt  Charbonneau,  in  each  case  designated  as  half- 
Indian  boys.  Rev.  Mr.  Welch  was  a  Baptist  minister  who  boarded 
and  educated  Indians  and  half-Indians,  while  Rev.  Mr.  Neil,  a  Catholic 
priest,  conducted  a  school  for  boys,  which  was  the  predecessor  of  the 
St.  Louis  University.  This  Toussaint  was  unquestionably  not  the 
interpreter,  as  one  author  has  suggested. 

Almost  every  traveller  and  trader,  clerk  and  bourgeois,  who  pub- 
lished accounts  of  visits  up  the  Missouri  River,  or  wrote  letters  of  the 
events  at  the  various  trading-posts,  after  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedi- 
tion and  up  to  1839,  mentioned  Charbonneau.  Surely,  in  view  of  the 
important  part  taken  by  the  Bird  Woman  in  the  exploration  of  the 

Appendix  135 

West,  reference  would  have  been  made  to  her  by  some  of  them,  if  she 
were  living  at  the  time. 

Prior  to  the  discovery  of  this  journal,  nothing  was  definitely  known 
of  the  whereabouts  of  the  Bird  Woman  subsequent  to  1811,  when 
Brackenridge  met  her.  Although  Hosmer  quotes  an  old  interpreter  at 
Fort  Berthold  to  the  effect  that  she  and  her  husband  perished  in  the 
small-pox  epidemic  which  was  so  fatal  to  the  Mandan  nation  in  1837, 
he  questions  the  truth  of  the  account. 

These  monuments  and  markers  have  been  erected  to  the  memory 
of  the  Bird  Woman: 

Statue  in  bronze  at  Portland,  Oregon,  unveiled  at  the  Portland 
Exposition.  It  was  erected  with  the  contributions  of  the  women  of 
the  Northwest,  and  was  designed  by  Alice  Cooper.  It  marks  the 
western  terminus  of  that  eventful  expedition. 

Boulder  with  bronze  tablet  at  Three  Forks,  erected  by  the  Montana 
Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution. 

Monument  with  bronze  tablet  inserted  at  Armstead,  Montana.  It 
was  near  this  spot,  at  the  Two  Forks,  or  Jefferson  Forks,  as  it  is  some- 
times called,  that  the  exploring  party  met  members  of  Sakakawea's 
own  tribe,  the  Shoshoni,  and  from  them  secured  horses  necessary  to 
cross  the  Great  Divide,  without  which  they  never  would  have  been 
able  to  complete  the  journey.  This  monument  was  also  erected  by 
the  Montana  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution. 

Cement  shaft  erected  in  Wyoming  over  the  grave  of  the  woman 
claimed  by  Dr.  Hebard  to  have  been  Sakakawea. 

The  United  States  Geological  Survey  gave  her  name  to  the  great 
peak  in  the  Bridger  range,  overlooking.the  spot  where  she  was  captured, 
and  where  she  later  pointed  out  the  pass  over  the  mountains. 

Statue  in  bronze  on  the  site  of  the  old  Mandan  village,  now  Bis- 
marck, marking  the  beginning  of  the  great  journey,  erected  by  contri- 
butions from  the  women  and  children  of  North  Dakota. 

There  stood  in  the  grounds  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition, 
at  St.  Louis,  a  beautiful  statue  of  Sakakawea,  designed  by  Bruno  Louis 
Zimm,  a  photograph  of  which  is  reproduced  in  this  book. 


TOUSSAINT  CHARBONNEAU  was  conspicuous  as  an  interpreter  in 
the  fur  trade,  and  through  his  employment,  from' 1819  to  1839,  by 
every  United  States  Indian  Agent  and  sub-agent  of  the  Mandan  and  Up- 

136  Appendix 

per  Missouri  Indian  tribes.  His  importance  to  the  Government  is  shown 
by  the  salaries  allotted  to  him,  which  varied  from  $200  to  $400  per  an- 
num, the  latter  sum  equalling  that  paid  to  most  of  the  sub-agents.  That 
he  was  faithful  and  competent  is  indicated  by  the  long  term  of  his  em- 
ployment by  the  Government.  He  was  known  to  Lewis  and  Clark, 
Prince  Maximilian,  Henry  M.  Brackenridge,  John  Bradbury,  Generals 
Henry  Atkinson,  and  Stephen  W.  Kearny,  from  all  of  whom  we  have 
accounts  of  him,  and  to  every  fur  trader  and  traveller  of  the  early  days 
in  the  Upper  Missouri  regions. 

The  prominent  incident  in  the  life  of  Charbonneau  is  his  purchase 
of  an  Indian  girl,  about  ten  years  old,  to  be  his  slave.  Later  he  mar- 
ried her,  and  as  his  wife  she  became  famous  as  a  faithful  and  efficient 
guide  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition.  Her  name  was  Sakakawea, 
and  she  was  otherwise  known  as  the  Bird  Woman,  about  whom  much 
has  been  written,  and  to  whose  memory  monuments  have  been  builded. 

Charbonneau  was  born  in  Canada  about  1759,  of  French  lineage. 
Both  his  given  and  surname  are  very  common  among  the  French  of 
Canada.  The  record  of  his  first  employment  reveals  him  as  a  trader 
with  the  Northwest  Company  at  Pine  Fort  on  the  Assiniboine,  in  the 
year  1793-94.  Two  years  later  he  was  with  the  Minnetarees  at  their 
central  village  on  the  Knife  River,  called  Metaharta.  Lewis  and  Clark 
found  him  at  this  place  in  the  winter  of  1804-05.  The  previous  year 
he  was  in  charge  of  Fort  Pembina  with  Alexander  Henry,  from  whom 
we  get  the  earliest  mention  of  him. 

Prince  Maximilian,  in  1833,  recorded  the  fact  that  Charbonneau 
had  lived  among  the  Mandan  Indians  for  thirty-seven  years,  and  gives 
the  various  names  by  which  he  was  known  to  the  Indians,  which  he 
interprets  from  the  Indian  languages  as  follows:  "Chief  of  the  little 
village";  "The  man  who  possesses  many  gourds";  "The  great  horse 
from  abroad";  "The  forest  bear." 

An  editor  of  the  journals  of  Lewis  and  Clark  speaks  in  very  un- 
complimentary terms  of  Charbonneau,  using  this  language:  "After 
reading  the  pages  of  Lewis  and  Clark's  journals,  one  has  little  respect 
for  Charbonneau's  qualities,  either  mental  or  moral.  It  is  to  be  re- 
gretted that  Maximilian  relied  so  much  upon  the  testimony  of  this 
interpreter  in  his  account  of  the  Mandan  and  Minnetaree  Indians." 

Indeed,  Capt.  Lewis,  in  his  report,  says  of  him  that  he  was  "a  man 
of  no  peculiar  merit,  was  useful  as  an  interpreter  only,  in  which  ca- 
pacity he  discharged  his  duties  with  good  faith."  As  he  was  employed 
only  as  an  interpreter,  this  record  of  having  discharged  his  duties  with 

Appendix  137 

good  faith  would  seem  a  pretty  fair  recommendation;  but  more  than 
this,  we  have  the  letter  of  Gen.  Clark,  written  to  Charbonneau  of 
August  20,  1806.    In  this  he  says,  among  other  things:    "Your  present 
situation  with  the  Indians  gives  me  some  concern.    I  wish  now  that 
I  had  advised  you  to  come  on  with  me  to  Illinois,  where  it  most  prob- 
ably would  be  in  my  power  to  put  you  in  some  way  to  do  something 
for  yourself.      *        *        *      You  have  been  a  long  time  with  me, 
and  have  conducted  yourself  in  such  a  manner  as  to  gain  my  friendship." 
Luttig,  in  his  journal,  twice  speaks  of  Charbonneau  in  a  rather 
disparaging  manner  in  connection  with  certain  incidents,  indicating  in 
one  place  that  he  had  been  guilty  of  exaggeration  and  cowardice,  and 
in  another  that  he  gave  wild  accounts  calculated  to  excite  fear  among 
the  engages.     Here   he    also  includes  another  interpreter,  named  Jus- 
seaume,  and  says  that  both  "ought  to  be  hung."    Other  incidents,  how- 
ever, mentioned  in  the  journal,  indicate  a  reliance  placed  upon  Char- 
bonneau, and  also  show  that  he  was  not  a  coward.     It  may  be  that 
Luttig  shared  that  common  suspicion  which  men  on  these  expeditions 
had  for  interpreters,  who  were  on  friendly  terms  with  the  Indians  and 
spoke  in  a  language  which  could  not  be  understood  by  the  trappers. 
His  winning  ways  were  evidently  not  understood  by  his  critics.    Wil- 
liam Laidlaw,  in  a  letter  to  James  Kipp,  dated  Fort  Pierre,  January 
14,  1834,  says:    "I  am  much  surprised  at  your  taking  old  Charbonne"au 
into  favor  after  showing  so  much  ingratitude  upon  all  occasions.    The 
old  knave,  what  does  he  say  for  himself?" 

Charbonneau  had  many  friends  among  the  traders,  Indian  agents 
and  travellers  of  the  West.  In  letter-books  and  manuscripts  to  be 
found  among  the  archives  of  the  Missouri  Historical  Society,  as  well  as 
in  many  of  the  published  narratives  of  travellers,  are  many  favor- 
able references  to  him.  Mr.  O.  L.  Wheeler,  author  of  The  Trail 
of  Lewis  and  Clark,  says  he  was  a  most  picturesque  and  unique  char- 
acter, and  a  man  of  fairly  commendable  traits,  considering  his  environ- 
ment. Francois  Antoine  Larocque  of  the  Northwest  Company  speaks 
very  favorably  of  him.  Maximilian  refers  to  Charbonneau  in  a  com- 
plimentary manner  and  gives  him  credit  for  much  valuable  information 
on  the  Mandans  and  customs  of  the  different  tribes  on  the  Upper 
Missouri.  To  be  sure,  Maximilian  has  been  criticized  for  placing  too 
much  reliance  on  Charbonneau's  accounts,  but  certainly  one  of  the 
incidents  which  he  gives  much  attention  to  on  the  authority  of  Char- 
bonneau is  verified  by  Gen.  Clark  in  his  diary  of  1826. 

138  Appendix 

From  manuscripts  and  deeds  recorded  in  St.  Louis  some  disconnected 
facts  are  reiterated  in  these  notes,  for  whatever  they  may  be  worth* 
in  connection  with  Charbonneau's  life:  On  March  26,  1811,  Char- 
bonneau  conveyed  to  William  Clark,  for  the  consideration  of  $100.00, 
a  piece  of  land  on  the  Missouri  River,  situated  in  St.  Ferdinand  Town- 
ship, which  land  had  been  conveyed  to  him  on  October  30,  1810.  This 
instrument  indicates  that  Charbonneau  bought  the  land  with  a  view 
to  settling  down  to  civilized  life,  but,  becoming  weary  of  it,  as  Bracken" 
ridge  tells  us,  transferred  his  property  to  Clark  and  returned  to  the 
Mandans.  The  witness  to  this  deed  was  Francois  Robidou,  a  mutual 
friend  of  Gen.  Clark  and  Charbonneau.  In  the  manuscript  collection 
of  Auguste  Chouteau  it  is  noted  that  Charbonneau  purchased  of  him, 
on  March  23,  1811,  fifty  pounds  of  bequit  (biscuit),  the  hard-tack  of 
those  days. 

American  State  Papers,  Foreign  Relations,  Vol.  4,  p.  210,  show  an 
affidavit  made  by  Charbonneau  at  St.  Louis,  on  December  8,  1817, 
concerning  the  imprisonment  of  American  citizens  in  Mexico.  In  this 
affidavit  he  states  that  he  is  of  lawful  age;  that  in  the  month  of  July, 
1816,  he  engaged  himself  to  Julius  DeMun,  of  the  firm  of  Auguste  P- 
Chouteau  &  Company,  to  go  from  St.  Louis  on  a  trading  voyage  along 
the  rivers  Arkansas  and  Platte;  that  Chouteau  &  Company  had  agreed 
to  pay  him  for  said  voyage  the  sum  of  two  hundred  dollars;  that  he 
stayed  with  the  company  from  the  month  of  July,  the  time  of  their 
starting  from  St.  Louis,  until  July  in  1817.  He  signed  the  affidavit 
with  his  mark. 

In  the  unpublished  journal  of  Gen.  Henry  Atkinson,  of  1825,  are 
several  references  to  Charbonneau;  one  to  the  effect  that  he  (his  name 
is  there  spelled  Shabano)  and  his  wife  and  her  brother  were  at  the 
Mandan  village.  This  was  not  the  Bird  Woman,  as  she  died  in  1812, 
and  her  brother,  being  a  Shoshoni  Indian,  would  not  likely  have  been 
among  the  Mandans. 

Maj.  Stephen  Kearny,  in  his  journal  of  August  n,  1825,  describes 
Charbonneau  Creek  as  having  been  named  for  a  Frenchman  who  ac- 
companied Lewis  and  Clark  across  the  mountains,  and  whom  he  saw 
at  the  Mandans,  residing  as  a  trader  among  them. 

Capt.  R.  Holmes  of  the  United  States  Army  refers  to  "old  Char- 
boneau,"  whom  he  met  in  1833,  in  a  party  of  white  men  in  the  mount- 
ains. He  says  that  Charbonneau  never  carried  arms,  his  knife  being 
his  only  weapon. 

In  a  letter  from  Maj.  D.  D.  Mitchell  to  W.  N.  Fulkerson,  Indian 

Appendix  139 

Agent  for  the  Mandans,  dated  June  10,  1836,  reporting  the  details  of 
a  battle  between  the  Grosventres  and  Mandans  of  the  little  village 
against  the  Yanktonai  band  of  the  Sioux,  states  that  "old  Charbono" 
had  a  narrow  escape,  two  balls  having  passed  through  his  hat. 

Much  has  been  said  about  the  meager  compensation  paid  to  Char- 
bonneau  by  the  Government  for  the  services  of  his  wife  and  himself. 
From  the  report  of  Capt.  Lewis  we  have  the  statement  that  he  received 
as  compensation  $25.00  per  month  while  in  service,  which  extended 
from  the  time  of  the  departure  of  the  expedition  from  the  Mandan 
village  on  April  7,  1805,  until  he  returned  to  that  place  in  August, 
1806.  This  item  is  often  referred  to,  but  no  mention  has  ever  been 
made  of  the  fact  that  Charbonneau  received,  in  addition  to  the  cash 
compensation,  the  same  bounty  land  grant  of  320  acres  given  to  the 
other  men  who  served  as  privates  of  that  expedition. 

Accounts  heretofore  published  cover  Charbonneau's  career  only  to 
the  year  1838.  There  is  in  the  Indian  Department  at  Washington, 
D.  C.,  an  interesting  letter  from  Joshua  Pilcher,  Superintendent  of 
Indian  Affairs,  a  copy  of  which  is  given  in  this  Appendix.  In  this 
letter,  dated  St.  Louis,  August  26,  1839,  Charbonneau  is  pictured 
as  tottering  under  the  infirmities  of  eighty  years,  without  a  dollar  to 
support  him  and  seeking  to  collect  his  salary  as  interpreter  for  the 
Mandan  agency  for  the  first  and  second  quarters  of  that  year.  It 
shows  that  an  order  had  been  made  for  his  dismissal,  and  calls  attention 
to  the  fact  that  he  served  some  time  in  ignorance  of  the  order.  It  will 
be  remembered  that  the  Mandan  Indians  had  been  almost  entirely 
wiped  out  by  an  epidemic  of  smallpox,  and  there  was  probably  no  longer 
any  special  need  for  an  interpreter  at  that  agency. 

A  Toussaint  Charbonneau  of  Carondelet,  St.  Louis  County,  made 
entry  of  land  in  Richwoods  Township,  Washington  County,  Missouri, 
in  1822,  and  settled  on  the  land.  This  man  has  lately  been  confused 
with  the  Charbonneau  of  Lewis  and  Clark  fame,  and  many  of  his  de- 
scendants are  erroneously  under  the  impression  that  the  interpreter 
was  their  ancestor.  The  tombstone  over  the  grave  of  Toussaint  Char- 
vonneau  at  Richwoods  gives  the  date  of  his  birth  as  of  March  I,  1781* 
and  his  death  as  of  February  19,  1866.  Charbbnneau  of  the  Lewis  and 
Clark  expedition  was  connected  with  the  Northwest  Company  in  1793* 
when  the  Richwoods  man  was  only  twelve  years  old.  There  is  a  deed, 
dated  June  5,  1848,  from  Toussaint  Charbonneau  of  Richwoods  and  his 
wife,  Marie  L.  Lavioiette,  a  French  woman,  recorded  in  St.  Louis, 

140  Appendix 

which  recites,  among  other  things,  that  he  was  living  in  Washington 
County,  Missouri. 

The  children  of  Charbonneau  and  the  Bird  Woman,  of  whom  we 
have  record,  were  Toussaint  and  Lizette.  It  is  known  that  the  former 
was  educated  by  the  Catholic  priest,  Rev.  F.  Neil,  in  St.  Louis.  In 
1830  there  was  a  Charbonneau  with  a  party  of  hunters  and  trappers 
in  Idaho,  and  Nathaniel  Wyeth  also  mentions  meeting  a  Charbonneau 
(a  half-breed)  with  Jim  Bridger  at  Fort  Bridger  in  August,  1832.  Fre- 
mont found  one  "Chabonard"  camped  about  nine  miles  above  the 
mouth  of  Bijou  Fork  in  July,  1842.  Sage,  in  his  Rocky  Mountain  Life 
(Boston,  1857,  p.  206),  tells  of  meeting  a  half-breed  fur  trader  named 
Chabonard  in  1841,  upon  the  White  River,  and  later,  in  1842,  on  an 
island  in  the  Platte.  Chabonard  was  in  the  employ  of  Bent  &  St. 
Vrain,  and  in  charge  of  the  camp,  and  "proved  to  be  a  gentleman  of 
superior  information."  He  had  acquired  a  classic  education  and  could 
converse  quite  fluently  in  German,  Spanish,  French,  and  English,  as 
well  as  several  Indian  languages.  His  mind  also  was  well  stored  with 
choice  reading  and  enriched  by  extensive  travel  and  observation.  This 
may  have  been  one  of  Charbonneau's  sons.  In  Gov.  Clark's  expense 
accounts  for  the  half-Indian  boys  named  Charbonneau  there  is  listed  t 
one  Roman  history,  Scott's  Lessons,  one  dictionary,  slate  and  pencils, 
paper  and  quills.  The  daughter  or  granddaughter  of  Charbonneau  is 
mentioned  by  Lean  Wolf,  an  old  Hidatsa  Indian,  as  having  died  in 
1837  during  the  smallpox  epidemic. 

On  April  23,  1843,  there  was  baptized  at  Westport,  Missouri,  Vic- 
toire  Vertifeuille,  the  daughter  of  Joseph  Vertifeuille  and  Elizabeth 
Carboneau.  Perhaps  Elizabeth  Carboneau  was  Lizette  Charbonneau, 
the  daughter  of  Toussaint  Charbonneau  and  Sakakawea. 


Superintend.y  of  Indian  Affs. 

St.  Louis,  Augt.  26,  1839. 

On  the  2 1st  inst.  Toussaint  Charbonneau,  the  late  Mandan  Inter- 
preter, arrived  here  from  the  Mandan  villages,  a  distance  of  1600  miles, 
and  came  into  the  office,  tottering  under  the  infirmities  of  80  winters, 

Appendix  141 

without  a  dollar  to  support  him,  to  ask  what  appeared  to  me  to  be 
nothing  more  than  just,  and  I  accordingly  have  paid  his  salary  as 
Interpreter  for  the  Mandan  sub-agency,  for  the  ist  &  2d  quarters  of 
this  year,  with  the  understanding  that  his  services  are  no  longer  re- 
quired. This  man  has  been  a  faithful  servant  of  the  Government — 
though  in  a  humble  capacity.  He  figured  conspicuously  in  the  expedi- 
tion of  Lewis  and  Clark  to  the  Pacific,  and  rendered  much  service. 
For  the  last  fifteen  years,  he  has  been  employed  as  the  Government 
interpreter  at  the  Mandans,  and  never  received  notice  of  the  intention 
of  the  Department  to  dispense  with  his  services,  until  some  time  in 
July,  in  consequence  of  the  remote  situation  of  the  post.  Under  these 
circumstances  I  thought,  and  still  think  it  but  right  that  he  should  be 
paid,  and  believe  it  will  meet  your  sanction,  to  be  charged,  (as  there 
has  been  no  allottment  for  that  sub-agency),  to  the  contingent  ac- 
count of  the  District. 

I  am, 


Your  mo.  ob.  st. 
JOSHUA  PILCHER,  Supr.  In.  Affs. 

T.  Hartley  Crawford,  Esq., 

Commr.  Ind.  Affs. 

O.  I.  A.  Upp.  Mo.  Sat.  Feb.  24, 
Maj.  Joshua  Pilcher, 

Saint  Louis,  Aug.  26,  1839. 

Toussaint  Charbonneau,  late  Mandan  Interpreter,  being  80  years 
old  &  pennyless,  has  paid  his  salary  for  1st  &  2d  qr.  of  '39 — as  the 
notice  of  discontinuance  did  not  reach  him  till  some  time  in  July. 
Ought  to  be  allowed. 

Rev.  Sept.  6,  1839. 


MANUEL  LISA,  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  of  the  Indian  traders 
and  merchants  in  St.  Louis,  was  born  in  Lower  Louisiana  about  1776* 

I42  Appendix 

and  was  the  son  of  Cristobal  de  Lisa,  a  native  of  the  town  of  Murcia, 
Spain,  and  Maria  Ignacia  Rodriguez.  In  his  early  youth  he  was  at- 
tracted to  the  Indian  trade  and  made  several  voyages  from  New  Or- 
leans to  the  Wabash.  In  1799  he  came  to  St.  Louis  and  started  in  trade 
with  the  Osage  nation,  of  which  he  obtained  a  monopoly  from  the 
Spanish  Government.  His  premier  voyage  up  the  Missouri  River  was 
in  1807  and  from  that  time  until  his  death  he  was  the  recognized  leader 
in  the  Missouri  River  trade.  He  was  twice  married  to  white  women; 
first  to  Mary  Charles,  and  after  her  death  in  1818  he  married  Mary 
Hempstead  Keeney,  daughter  of  Stephen  Hempstead.  His  only  living 
descendants  are  the  children  of  his  daughter  Rosalie,  whose  mother 
was  an  Omaha.  He  died  in  St.  Louis,  August  12,  1820,  after  a  few 
days'  illness.  His  widow  survived  him  fifty  year«,  and  died  at  Galena, 
Illinois,  September  3,  1869.  For  an  extended  biography  of  this  fam- 
ous character,  see  Douglas,  Manuel  Lisa,  Missouri  Historical  Society 
Collections,  3:233,  267. 


Fort  Manuel,  Sept.  8,  1812. 
To  the  Spaniards  of  New  Mexico: 

My  dear  Sirs:  Ever  since  my  first  journey  among  the  forks  of 
the  Missouri,  nine  hundred  leagues  from  my  domicile,  I  have  desired 
to  find  an  opportunity  to  communicate  with  my  [com]patriots,  the 
Spaniards.  I  have  had  hunters  to  the  number  of  twenty-three  who 
have  gone  to  the  Arapaho  nation.  Last  year  they  came  to  my  Fort 
Mandanne,  where  I  equipped  them  anew  to  return  to  the  place  whence 
they  had  come.  They  are  the  ones  who  informed  me  that  the  Span- 
iards of  Mexico  were  coming  every  year  to  trade  with  the  Arapahos. 
Therefore  I  gave  to  a  certain  Juan  Baptista  Champlin,  an  honorable 
young  man,  and  Juan  Baptista  Lafargue  some  goods  for  the  purpose 
of  trading  with  you,  admonishing  them  that  it  must  not  be  to  the 
prejudice  of  the  Government,  nor  contrary  to  its  laws. 

Since  some  of  my  hunters  should  come  this  year  to  meet  me  at  this 
establishment  on  the  Missouri,  and  since  up  to  the  present  I  have  not 
had  any  news  [of  them],  I  have  decided  to  send  one  of  my  trusted 
servants,  Don  Carlos  Sanguinet,  with  two  engages,  to  let  them  know 
where  they  should  come  out  with  their  peltry;  and  for  the  same  purpose, 
with  the  same  Sanguinet,  I  sent  ten  men  to  the  Petite  Corne,  which 

Appendix  143 

empties  into  the  Rio  Amarillo,  and  this  into  the  Missouri,  the  entry 
of  the  Petite  Corne  being  two  hundred  and  twenty-five  leagues  from 
this  establishment,  with  orders  to  establish  [a  post  at]  that  place,  as 
nearer  for  my  hunters. 

I  have  especially  instructed  Don  Carlos  Sanguinet  to  arrange  that 
this  letter  of  mine  should  fall  into  the  hands  of  some  Spaniard  who 
may  be  worthy  to  communicate  with  me  on  those  honorable  principles, 
and  in  no  other  manner,  my  desire  being  to  engage  in  business  and  open 
up  a  new  commerce,  which  might  easily  be  done.  With  this  in  view, 
and  as  director  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company,  I  propose  to  you  gen- 
tlemen that  if  you  wish  to  trade  and  deal  with  me,  for  whatever  quantity 
of  goods  it  may  be,  I  will  obligate  myself  to  fill  each  year  any  bill  of 
goods  which  shall  be  given  me,  and  all  shall  be  delivered  (as  stipulated) 
both  as  to  quality  and  as  to  quantity,  at  the  place  nearest  and  most 
convenient  for  both  parties,  to  your  satisfaction,  after  we  shall  have 
agreed  on  the  chosen  place. 

In  case  any  of  you  should  wish  to  come  with  Don  Carlos  Sanguinet 
to  this  my  establishment  to  communicate  and  trade  with  me,  you  will 
be  received  and  treated  with  great  pleasure  and  satisfaction,  and  as- 
sured of  a  sufficient  escort,  agreeable  to  you,  up  to  the  time  you  return 
to  your  country.  I  commend  Don  Carlos  Sanguinet  to  you  as  a  trust- 
worthy and  honorable  man,  and,  if  you  are  agreed,  you  may  confide 
in  him  without  any  fear  whatever;  and  in  case  you  do  not  come  in 
person,  I  shall  be  obliged  to  you  if  you  will  write  to  me.  Meanwhile, 
awaiting  you,  I  beg  God  to  spare  you  many  years. 

Your  most  attentive  and  faithful  servant, 

MANUEL  LISA  (Rubric). 

(The  original  of  this  letter  is  in  the  Archives  of  Chihuahua,  and 
published  for  the  first  time  by  Herbert  E.  Bolton  in  the  Southwestern 
Historical  Quarterly,  Vol.  XVII.,  p.  61.) 


MELL was  one  of 
the  bravest  and 
most  resourceful 

men  in  the  fur  trade.    He  was  a  native  of  Chambersburg,  Pennsylvania, 
but  the  year  of  his  birth  is  unknown.     He  came  to  St.  Louis  in  the 

144  Appendix 

early  part  of  1804,  and  later  became  a  member  of  the  First  Infantry, 
commanded  by  Col.  Thomas  Hunt.  He  was  appointed  ensign  June 
10,  1807,  and  on  October  10,  1808,  was  promoted  to  second  lieutenant; 
two  weeks  later  he  resigned  from  the  Army.  He  was  stationed  at 
Fort  Bellefontaine  during  most  of  his  army  service,  although  for  a 
short  time,  in  1808,  he  was  in  command  of  the  small  garrison  at  St.  Louis. 
In  1809  he  went  up  the  Missouri  River  with  the  Missouri  Fur  Company, 
and  soon  became  Lisa's  most  trusted  lieutenant.  There  is  no  record 
of  his  having  returned  to  St.  Louis  after  this  departure.  In  1810  he 
joined  fortunes  with  Jean  Baptiste  Valle  as  a  free  hunter  on  the  Upper 
Missouri.  Immell  was  at  Fort  Osage  in  March,  1817,  where  he  gave 
a  report  of  some  petrified  mammoth  bones  and  cedar  which  he  saw 
at  a  "lake  near  the  waters  of  Qui  Courre  River' '.  This  information  was 
afterwards  published  in  the  Missouri  Gazette,  April  12,  1817.  When 
Lisa  was  deprived  of  the  control  and  management  of  the  affairs  of 
Cabanne  &  Company  on  the  Missouri  River  and  its  waters,  in  Febru- 
ary, 1819,  Michael  E.  Immell,  who  was  at  Fort  Lisa,  was  appointed 
to  take  command  jointly  with  George  Kennerly.  While  in  command 
later,  with  Robert  Jones,  of  an  expedition  on  the  Yellowstone,  he  was 
killed;  being  literally  cut  to  pieces  in  battle  with  the  Blackfeet,  May 
31,  1823.  Major  O'Fallon,  United  States  Agent,  in  his  report  of  this 
conflict  to  Gen.  Clark,  July  3,  1823,  speaks  of  Immell  in  these  words: 
"Immell  has  been  a  long  time  on  this  river,  first  as  an  officer  in  the 
U.  S.  Army,  since  as  a  trader  of  some  distinction.  He  was  in  some 
respects  an  extraordinary  man;  he  was  brave,  uncommonly  large  and 
of  great  muscular  strength,  and,  when  timely  apprised  of  danger,  a 
host  in  himself." 

AMOS  RICHARDSON  came  from  Kentucky  to  Missouri  before  1803 
and  settled  in  the  District  of  St.  Louis  at  a  point  which  is  now  St. 
John's  Township  of  Franklin  County.  He  was  the  fourth  child  of 
Daniel  and  Nancy  Richardson,  who  claimed  land  at  Point  Labadie,  in 
Franklin  County.  Amos  Richardson  was  a  Syndic  under  Gov.  Delas- 
sus,  whose  report  of  him  states:  "I  think  him  a  proper  man  for  public 
business,  and  since  hia  appointment  he  has  always  borne  himself  ear- 

Appendix  145 

nestly  in  all  matters."  He  was  in  the  employ  of  Sanguinet  and  Robi- 
dou  from  1804-1809,  and  later  with  Auguste  Chouteau,  as  a  trapper, 
Bradbury,  in  his  travels  of  1809-1810,  met  Richardson  at  the  Arikara 
village  in  July,  1810,  and  he  asked  permission  to  travel  down  the  river 
with  him  to  St.  Louis.  Four  years  without  seeing  a  single  white  man's 
house  made  him  very  eager  to  leave  the  Indian  country.  Then,  too,, 
he  suffered  great  hardship,  including  a  severe  arrow  wound,  which  gave 
him  considerable  pain.  During  the  descent  of  the  river  he  told  Brad- 
bury that  he  would  never  again  go  back  to  the  hunting  life.  Three 
weeks  after  his  arrival  in  the  settlements,  when  Bradbury  was  ready 
to  make  his  trip  up  the  Arkansas,  Richardson  asked  to  join  him,  When 
Bradbury  expressed  surprise  at  so  sudden  a  change  in  his  intentions, 
he  replied:  "I  find  so  much  deceit  and  selfishness  among  white  men 
that  I  have  already  tired  of  them.  The  arrowhead,  which  is  not  yet 
extracted,  pains  me  when  I  chop  wood,  whiskey  I  can't  drink  and 
bread  and  salt  I  don't  care  about.  I  will  go  again  among  the  Indians." 
However,  after  his  return  from  the  Arkansas  he  went  back  to  his  home, 
which  was  close  to  that  of  John  Colter  of  Lewis  and  Clark  fame.  The 
Colters  and  the  Richardsons  were  very  good  friends,  and  upon  the 
death  of  Colter,  Daniel  Richardson  was  appointed  administrator  of  the 
estate.  After  the  death  of  their  father  Daniel,  Amos  and  his  brother 
Richard  were  appointed  administrators  to  close  up  the  estate  of  John 
Colter.  Amos  Richardson  married  and  was  living  in  Franklin  County 
in  1835,  tne  last  date  °f  which  we  have  any  record  of  him.  He,  as 
well  as  other  members  of  his  family,  were  prosperous  farmers  of  Franklin 
County,  Missouri. 


ELI  B.  CLEMSON  was  a  native  of  Pennsylvania  and  he  entered  the 
United  States  Army  from  that  State.  His  commission  as  second  lieu- 
tenant of  the  1st  Infantry  was  issued  March  3, 1799,  and  first  lieutenant 
April  30,  1800;  at  these  times  he  was  stationed  at  Detroit.  Lieutenant 
Clemson  was  promoted  to  a  captaincy  March  4,  1807;  major,  January 
20,  1813;  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  i6th  Infantry,  March  9,  1814;  and 
honorably  discharged  June  15,  1815.  The  following  year  he  was  ap- 
pointed Commissioner  of  Issues  at  St.  Louis,  which  post  he  resigned 
December  1, 1819.  In  1807  Captain  Clemson  was  appointed,  at  the  sug- 
gestion of  his  friend  Frederick  Bates,  justice  of  the  peace  for  the  town- 

146  Appendix 

ship  of  St.  Ferdinand,  District  of  St.  Louis.  Colonel  Clemson  was  a 
most  capable  man,  and  his  interests  and  occupations  covered  many  fields. 

As  commander  of  Fort  Osage  in  1808,  Major  Clemson  mustered 
into  the  United  States  service  a  body  of  militia  to  convoy  the  Mandan 
chief  on  his  return  to  the  Mandan  village.  Fort  Clemson,  situated 
near  Loutre  Island,  St.  Charles  County,  was  erected  and  named  in  his 
honor  during  the  War  of  1812.  For  a  number  of  years  prior  to  and  after 
the  War  of  1812  he  was  stationed  at  Fort  Bellefontaine  and  invested 
largely  in  St.  Louis  real  estate,  realizing  therefrom  a  handsome  profit. 
In  1817  he  purchased  from  Judge  Lucas  a  block  of  ground  covering 
Olive,  Locust,  Sixth  and  Seventh  Streets,  on  which  he  built  a  large 
frame  dwelling  and  lived  there  for  some  time.  This  block  is  now  the 
site  of  a  combined  department  store  and  office  building.  In  about 
1820  he  sold  out  his  interests  in  St.  Louis  and  went  East.  Returning 
to  the  West  in  a  few  years,  he  located  in  Lebanon,  St.  Clair  County, 
Illinois,  and  for  a  time  operated  a  line  of  stage  and  mail  coaches  be- 
tween Vincennes  and  St.  Louis.  Later  he  went  to  Carlyle  in  that  State 
and  embarked  in  the  mercantile  business.  In  1832  he  moved  to  Car- 
rollton,  Illinois,  and  again  engaged  in  the  transportation  business  be- 
tween Springfield  and  St.  Louis.  A  few  years  afterwards  he  took  up 
farming  at  Caledonia  (now  called  Olmstead),  Illinois,  and  served  as 
postmaster  of  that  place.  He  was  the  projector  of  the  town  of  Na- 
poleon and  agent  for  the  Winnebago  Land  Company.  His  last  occu- 
pation was  clerk  of  Pulaski  County  Court,  which  position  he  held  at 
the  time  of  his  death,  June  25,  1846. 

Colonel  Clemson  was  twice  married.  First  to  Miss  Ann  Marie  Oliver 
of  New  Brunswick,  New  York,  on  April  9,  1811.  Of  this  marriage 
four  children  were  born:  Henry  A.,  who  was  an  officer  in  the  United 
States  Navy  and  was  lost  during  the  siege  of  Vera  Cruz  in  the  Mexican 
War  when  the  United  States  brig  Somers  capsized;  James  Y.;  Freder- 
ick W.;  and  Mary  C,  who  married  Mr.  Olden  of  Princeton,  New 
Jersey.  Mrs.  Clemson  died  in  1832,  and  Colonel  Clemson  afterwards 
married  Mrs.  Esther  Daniels  Riddle,  the  widow  of  Captain  James  Riddle, 
August  II,  1836.  Two  children  were  born  of  this  marriage:  Aaron  B. 
and  Theodosia  B.  The  second  Mrs.  Clemson  died  in  1864.  Colonel 
Clemson's  son  James  Y.  married  Henriette  McDonald;  from  her  was  ob- 
tained the  data  concerning  the  Colonel's  career  in  Illinois. 

Appendix  147 


FRANCOIS  ROBIDOU,  the  third  son  of  Joseph  and  Catherine  (Rollet, 
dit  Laderoute)  Robidou,  was  born  in  St.  Louis,  September  24,  1788. 
He  was  married  in  1807  to  Therese  Bienvenue  Delisle,  daughter  of 
Jean  Baptiste  and  Cecile  (La  Rose)  Delisle.  Mrs.  Robidou  died  in 
1833,  at  which  time  six  children,  born  of  this  marriage,  were  living: 
Therese,  Francois,  Antoine,  Jean  Baptiste,  Marie,  and  Cecile.  Fran- 
cois Robidou  received  a  very  good  education,  and  was  prominently 
identified  with  the  social  and  civic  history  of  St.  Louis.  He  was  one  of 
the  signers  of  the  petition  for  incorporating  St.  Louis  in  1809.  Fran- 
cois and  his  brother  Joseph  were  closely  associated  together  all  their 
lives.  From  an  early  date  they  made  many  trips  up  the  Missouri 
River  as  trappers  and  hunters,  and  later  as  free  traders.  When  Joseph 
was  persuaded  to  remain  in  St.  Louis  and  paid  to  cease  his  trade  with 
the  Indians,  the  two  brothers  opened  up  a  confectionery  shop  in  St. 
Louis.  Their  father  had  erected  one  of  the  first  stone  bake-ovens  in 
St.  Louis,  in  order  to  supply  the  Indian  trade,  as  well  as  the  residents, 
with  bread.  When  they  resumed  their  former  occupation  as  Indian 
traders,  Joseph  remained  in  the  Black  Snake  Hills  (now  St.  Joseph, 
Missouri),  while  Francois  went  further  up  the  Missouri  River,  or  across 
the  plains  to  the  mountains,  to  hunt  and  trap.  After  taking  up  their 
residence  at  St.  Joseph,  Missouri,  Francois  seems  to  have  become  the 
lesser  light,  and  his  deeds  are  not  recorded  in  the  history  of  that  com- 
munity. This  was  due  probably  to  the  fact  that  Joseph  was  the  leader 
and  dictator,  and  Francois  the  follower,  the  hunter  and  trapper.  I 
find  no  record  of  a  second  marriage,  nor  of  the  death  of  Francois.  His 
great-nephew,  Louis  R.  Robidoux  of  Kansas  City,  tells  me  that  the 
family  tradition  indicates  that  Francois  died  on  the  plains  of  Nebraska 
on  May  30,  1857.  The  Probate  Court  records  of  Buchanan  County 
show  that  letters  of  administration  were  taken  out  on  the  estate  of  one 
Francois  Robidoux  on  April  n,  1856,  and  also  that  he  died  intestate, 
leaving  the  following  heirs  t  Mary  Poulin,  Sellico  Robidoux,  Louis 

148  Appendix 

Robidoux,  Eugenia  Angel,  and  Celina  (Cecile)  Lapere.  While  these 
names  do  not  altogether  agree  with  those  in  the  baptismal  records  at 
St.  Louis,  nor  in  the  deed  of  partition  filed  after  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Francois  Robidou.  they  do  accord  with  records  in  St.  Joseph.  These 
show  that  Therese  Eugenia  Robidoux  married  John  Angel,  an  English- 
man, in  St.  Joseph  in  1846;  that  Cecile,  widow  of  Mr.  McDowell,  mar- 
ried Peter  Le  Pere  in  1850;  and  Marie,  as  the  Widow  Brown,  married 
Isadore  Poulin  in  1854;  in  each  entry  Francois  Robidou  is  given  as 
the  father  of  the  bride.  The  name  Robidou  is  usually  written  with 
an  x,  due  no  doubt  to  the  fact  that  both  Joseph  and  Francois  frequently 
gave  a  flourish  to  the  final  u  which  somewhat  resembled  an  x.  The 
present  generation  spells  it  Robidoux. 


Louis  BISSONET,  dit  Bijou,  eldest  son  of  Louis  and  Genevieve 
(Routier)  Bissonet,  was  born  in  St.  Louis,  August  5,  1774.  When 
twenty-five  years  old  he  was  engaged  by  Auguste  Chouteau  to  make 
a  voyage  to  Mackinac,  and  he  continued  in  his  employ  until  the  or- 
ganization of  the  St.  Louis  Missouri  Fur  Company.  He  became  one 
of  the  most  trusted  employees  of  that  company  and  remained  in  its 
service  for  many  years.  In  May,  1820,  he  was  in  the  employ  of  Pratte 
and  Vasquez,  and  encamped  on  the  Missouri  River  at  a  place  "about 
one  league  below  the  old  town  of  the  Mahas  nation."  On  May  22, 
1820,  the  camp  was  suddenly  attacked  by  a  party  of  Indians,  believed 
to  have  been  the  Sauks.  Bissonet,  Baptiste  Ticio,  and  Charles  Le- 
monde,  dit  La  Malice,  were  severely  wounded,  and  Louis  Lecompte 
was  killed.  To  save  their  lives,  Pratte,  Vasquez,  and  their  surviving 
engages,  leaving  behind  all  their  furs  and  peltries,  horses  and  equip- 
ment, were  forced  to  take  flight  to  Council  Bluffs,  where  the  United 
States  troops  were  stationed.  In  an  affidavit  made  in  St.  Louis,  July 
6,  1820,  and  from  which  the  above  facts  were  ascertained,  Bissonet 
stated  that  he  had  for  a  great  number  of  years  followed  the  Indian 
trade,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  the  habits,  manners,  and  customs 
of  the  Indians.  In  1825,  while  in  the  employ  of  the  French  Fur  Com- 
pany, he  was  sent  to  accompany  Gen.  Atkinson  and  his  party  to  treat 
with  the  Mandans.  He  was  chief  clerk  and  trader  at  Fort  Clark  in 
1830;  clerk  of  the  Upper  Missouri  Outfit  of  the  American  Fur  Company 
in  1831;  chief  trader  of  the  French  Company  in  1833. 

Appendix  149 

Bijou  Hills,  South  Dakota,  close  to  the  point  where  he  had  his 
trading-post,  were  named  for  him.  There  was  a  Bissonet  in  the  North- 
west Company,  one  with  Parkman  in  1846,  and  Joseph  Bissonet,  a 
brother  of  Louis,  was  an  employee  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  in 

Louis  Bissonet  seems  to  have  died  in  1836,  as  his  brother-in-law, 
Paul  Primeau,  was  appointed  at  St.  Louis  administrator  of  his  estate 
January  2.  1837.  His  heirs  were  Joseph  Bissonet,  brother,  living  at 
that  time  in  Mexico;  Pelagic  Primeau,  his  sister;  Pierre  and  Elinore 
Ladouceur,  his  nephew  and  niece. 


NET, fils,  was  of  a 
family  prominent  in 
Canada  and  in  St. 
Louis.  He  was  the 
son  of  Charles  San- 

guinet,  who  came  to  St.  Louis  from  Quebec  in  the  year  1775,  and  soon 
became  prominent  in  its  social  and  business  life.  The  elder  Charles 
was  married  to  Marie  Anne  Cond6,  the  eldest  daughter  of  Dr.  Auguste 
A.  Cond6,  St.  Louis'  first  physician;  he  became  a  member  of  the  Span- 
ish Company  of  explorers  and  traders,  and  later  was  associated  with 
the  various  fur  trading  and  commercial  enterprises,  in  which  he  amassed 
a  fortune.  Charles  and  Marie  (Cond6)  Sanguinet  had  three  sons* 
Charles,  Simon,  and  Christopher,  all  of  whom  had  some  experience  in 
the  mountains.  Of  them,  Charles,  known  as  "Sanguinet,  fils"  very 
closely  followed  his  father's  example  in  his  business  methods,  and, 
while  he  had  one  or  two  reverses  in  business,  managed  to  accumulate 
a  fortune.  When  Sanguinet,  fils,  was  thirteen  years  of  age,  he  was  sent 
to  New  Orleans  to  complete  his  education,  after  which  he  entered  the 
grocery  business.  In  1808  he  returned  to  St.  Louis  and  immediately 
joined  the  Missouri  Fur  Company's  expedition  of  that  year.  Sanguinet 
made  three  trips  to  the  mountains.  After  his  return  from  the  last  trip 
he  engaged  in  the  general  mercantile  business  with  his  father,  their 
store  being  in  the  lower  part  of  the  Sanguinet  house  on  the  northeast 
corner  of  Main  and  Elm  Streets,  and  after  the  death  of  his  father  his 


brother-in-law,  Captain  Josiah  Bright,  joined  with  him.  Their  stock  was 
said  to  be  the  largest  in  St.  Louis,  but  in  1821  the  partnership  was 
dissolved.  After  a  financial  failure  in  1827,  Mr.  Sanguinet  moved  to 
Franklin,  Missouri,  where  he  remained  a  year  or  two.  He  went  to  the 
Galena  Mines  to  prospect  for  lead,  in  which  venture  he  was  very  suc- 
cessful, and  after  four  or  five  years  returned  to  St.  Louis,  where  he 
engaged  in  the  real  estate  and  banking  business. 

Mr.  Sanguinet  was  a  very  prudent,  industrious,  and  studious  man» 
of  a  kind  and  gentle  disposition.  His  daughter,  Mrs.  Virginia  Nadeau, 
aged  ninety-two  years  (whose  interest  in  things  of  to-day  and  clear 
recollections  of  the  past  made  my  visits  to  her  a  source  of  delight)* 
gave  this  account  of  him:  "My  father  was  very  Napoleonic  and  de- 
bonnaire.  He  always  wore  knee  breeches,  velvet  coats,  and  lacey 
jabots.  He  was  small  in  stature,  with  blue  eyes  and  brown  hair,  and 
the  most  indulgent  of  fathers." 

Mr.  Sanguinet  was  married  October  19, 1816,  to  Miss  Cecilc  Brazeau* 
and  their  children,  all  of  whom  attained  majority,  were:  Mary,  Charles* 
Marshall,  Amanda,  Virginia,  and  Fanny;  many  of  the  descendants  oj 
whom  are  still  living  in  Missouri  and  Texas.  Mr.  Sanguinet  lived  on 
his  farm  in  St.  Louis  County  until  about  two  weeks  before  his  death» 
which  occurred  in  the  ciy  of  St.  Louis,  April  10,  1873,  at  the  age  of 
&inety-one  years;  the  day  of  his  birth  being  December  9,  1782.  Some 
time  before  his  death  he  divided  all  his  property  among  his  children* 


was  born  in  Al- 
bemarle  Coun- 
ty, Virginia, 
February  14, 

1777.  He  came  to  Missouri  in  1807,  with  his  brother,  Meriwether 
Lewis.  Soon  afterwards  he  was  appointed,  by  his  brother,  sub-agent 
of  Indian  Affairs,  and  as  such  signed  a  treaty  with  the  Osages  at  Fort 
Osage,  November  10,  1808.  He  became  a  partner  in  the  St.  Louis 
Missouri  Fur  Company  and  went  up  the  Missouri  River  in  1809,  where 
he  remained  in  command  of  one  of  the  forts  until  1812.  After  his  return 
in  1813,  upon  the  rcommendation  of  General  Clark,  he  was  appointed 

Appendix  151 

Assistant  Agent  of  Indian  Affairs  in  Arkansas.  In  1818  he  was  ap- 
pointed Commissioner  to  run  the  survey  line  for  the  land  given  by 
the  United  States  to  the  Cherokee  Nation,  in  exchange  for  land 
ceded  to  the  United  States  by  the  treaty  of  July  8,  1817;  later  he  was 
appointed  in  the  same  capacity,  to  lay  off  the  Quapaw  Reserve.  He 
did  not,  however,  serve  on  either  Commission;  the  first,  for  the  reason 
that  the  letter  of  instructions  from  the  War  Department  miscarried 
and,  in  the  meantime,  the  work  was  done  by  General  Rector  under  di- 
rections from  the  general  office;  and  the  second,  because  of  domestic 
troubles  intervening,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  letter  of  Mr* 
Harper.  This  letter,  dated  Albemarle  County,  Virginia,  May  12,  1819, 
was  addressed  to  Reuben  Lewis,  Agent  for  Cherokees  on  the  Arkansas* 
and  contained,  among  other  things,  the  following: 

"Our  neigborhood  has  been  severely  afflicted  for  some  months  past, 
among  which  your  mother's  family  have  had  a  large  share,  owing  to 
the  Doctor's  [probably  his  half-brother,  Dr.  John  Marks]  situation; 
which  has  become  to  appearances  hopeless;  his  insanity  has  assumed 
a  dangerous  appearance  so  that  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  confine 
him.  *  *  *  You  will  now  consider  yourself  the  only  prop 
of  the  family.  Your  mother  yesterday  requested  that  you  might  be 
immediately  informed  *  *  *  and  that  you  would  hasten  to 
their  relief.  Your  mother's  firmness  is  much  weakened.  Since  writing 
above  the  Doctor  has  escaped  from  his  friends  and  has  not  been  heard  of." 

On  August  15,  1819,  Reuben  Lewis  wrote  the  Secretary  of  War: 
"From  the  peculiar  and  unfortunate  situation  of  my  mother  and  fam- 
ily, I  must  beg  leave  to  decline  accepting  a  commission  to  lay  off  the 
Quapaw  Reserve,  and  for  the  same  circumstances,  I  am  compelled  to 
resign  my  appointment  as  agent  for  the  Cherokees  on  the  Arkansas." 
His  resignation  was  accepted,  to  take  effect  December  31,  1819,  but 
before  that  date  he  returned  to  the  family  estate  near  Charlottesville, 
Virginia,  and  soon  after  took  up  the  medical  profession.  In  1832  he 
married  his  cousin,  Mildred  Dabney.  Reuben  Lewis  died  in  1844, 
leaving  no  descendants. 


JOHN  DOUGHERTY  was  born  near  Bardstown,  Nelson  County,  Ken- 
tucky, April  12,  1791,  and  died  at  Liberty,  Clay  County,  Missouri, 
December  28,  1860.  At  the  age  of  seventeen  years  he  came  to  St. 


Louis  and  almost  immediately  engaged  himself  to  the  St.  Louis  Mis- 
souri Fur  Company.  He  went  with  the  first  expedition  of  that  com- 
pany to  the  Upper  Missouri,  and  after  a  few  years' service  in  the  capac- 
ity of  trapper,  trader,  and  clerk,  he  was  appointed  sub-agent  under 
Major  Benjamin  O'Fallon,  United  States  Indian  Agent  of  the  Upper 
Missouri  tribes.  On  the  resignation  of  Major  O'Fallon  in  1827,  Major 
Dougherty  was  appointed  United  States  Indian  Agent.  His  headquar- 
ters were  at  Fort  Leavenworth  for  the  first  ten  years  of  his  incum- 
bency; at  St.  Louis  for  the  years  1830-1833;  then  for  a  short  time 
at  Council  Bluffs;  and  again  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  where  he  remained 
until  1839.  When  he  resigned,  the  Missouri  Republican  of  St.  Louis, 
commenting  on  it,  said  editorially:  "In  losing  the  services  of  Major 
Dougherty  the  Government  has  lost  a  valuable  public  officer,  one  of  the 
first  for  honesty,  integrity,  and  worth  in  the  land;  the  Indians  a  faithful 
and  unflinching  friend."  Major  Dougherty,  as  he  wrote  to  his  friend 
Senator  Geyer,  had  spent  forty-four  years  in  the  Western  country  from 
the  Missouri  to  the  Columbia,  as  trapper,  Indian  agent,  and  freighter. 
These  were  dangerous  occupations,  in  which  he  became  more  perfectly 
acquainted  with  the  habits,  manners,  tastes,  and  peculiarities  of  the 
Northwestern  tribes  than  any  man  ever  did  before,  or  since,  and  no 
man  has  ever  acquired  such  an  influence  over  them.  This  influence 
did  not  result  so  much  from  his  peculiar  knowledge  of  them  as  it  did 
from  the  nature  of  the  man  himself.  He  had  a  commanding  and  easy 
dignity,  a  bright  and  intellectual  eye;  an  unvarying  candor  and  direct- 
ness in  all  his  intercourse  with  them,  which  at  once  pleased,  charmed* 
and  overawed.  His  life  with  the  Indians  and  uncouth  men  of  the 
then  uncivilized  West  did  not  take  from  him  those  inherent  qualities 
of  a  gentleman.  He  was  kind,  courteous,  and  hospitable,  a  good  neigh- 
bor, a  warm  and  devoted  friend,  and  an  affectionate  husband  and 
father.  Colonel  D.  C.  Allen  of  Liberty,  Missouri,  pays  this  tribute  to 
him:  "Major  Dougherty  was  a  magnificent  specimen  of  the  frontiers- 
man and  Indian  fighter,  as  well  as  that  of  the  old-fashioned  Missouri 

After  Major  Dougherty's  resignation  from  the  Indian  Department 
he  removed  to  Clay  County,  and  was  elected  a  representative  to  the 
Missouri  Legislature  of  that  county  in  the  hard  contest  of  1840.  With 
Colonel  Robert  and  William  Campbell  of  St.  Louis  he  was  in  the  busi- 
ness of  United  States  sutlers  and  freighters  from  about  1839  to  1855. 

He  married  at  St.  Louis,  November  13,  1823,  Mary,  the  daughter 

Appendix  153 

of  Joseph  Hertzog  and  Catherine  Wilt.  Four  children  were  born  to 
them:  Lewis  Bissell,  who  has  the  distinction  of  being  the  first  white 
American  born  in  what  is  now  the  State  of  Kansas  and  who  served  in  the 
Confederate  Army  as  captain  in  the  Third  Missouri  Infantry,  and  is 
now  living  at  Liberty,  Missouri;  Anne  Elizabeth,  who  married  Gen- 
eral Charles  Ruff,  United  States  Army;  O'Fallon,  banker  and  stock- 
raiser;  John  Kerr,  who  served  in  his  brother's  regiment  in  the  Confed- 
erate Army,  and  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Franklin,  Tennessee.  Mrs. 
Dougherty  died  in  Philadelphia,  March  27, 1873,  aged  seventy-four  years. 


SABLE,  a  French-West- 
Indian  mulatto,  reputed  to 
be  the  first  settler  of  Chi- 
cago; having  had  a  trading- 
house  and  residence  on  the 
bank  of  the  Chicago  River, 
where  Pine  Street  now  ends, 

prior  to  1779.  According  to  Mrs.  John  H.  Kinzie,  whose  husband 
purchased  the  house  built  by  Point  du  Sable,  he  was  a  native  of  San 
Domingo.  N.  Matson,  in  his  French  and  Indian  Wars  of  Illinois^  says 
he  was  a  runaway  slave  from  Lexington,  Kentucky.  Point  du  Sable 
on  June  14,  1809,  in  making  an  affidavit  at  St.  Charles  as  to  some 
Indian  depredations  on  the  Illinois  River,  designated  himself  "Baptiste 
Pointe  Sable,  a  free  mulatto  man." 

Point  du  Sable's  chief  occupation  seems  to  have  been  that  of  a 
trader  who  wandered  from  place  to  place  in  the  customary  manner, 
and  fortunately  left  a  record  now  and  then.  In  1779  he  was  in  Chi- 
cago, and  in  the  summer  of  that  same  year  he  was  established  on  the 
River  Chemin,  later  known  as  Trail  Creek,  probably  on  the  site  of 
Michigan  City,  Indiana.  It  was  at  this  place  that  he  was  arrested 
by  Lieut.  Bennett,  who  had  been  sent  by  Arent  S.  De  Peyster  of  the 
British  Army  to  forestall  an  anticipated  attack  on  Mackinac  by  George 
Rogers  Clark.  Point  du  Sable's  arrest  seems  to  have  been  due  to  his 
seeming  attachment  to  the  American  cause,  although  at  the  time  he 
was  in  the  employ  of  a  British  trader  named  Durand,  who  had  under- 

154  Appendix 

taken  to  guide  a  British  war  party  to  the  Illinois  country  to  co-operate 
with  Bennett.  In  his  petition  for  a  grant  of  land  from  the  United 
States  Government,  presented  in  1783,  Point  du  Sable  satisfied  the 
Commissioners  that  he  was  a  citizen  of  the  United  States.  He  stated 
that  as  early  as  1780  he  had  resided  at  Peoria  with  his  family  and  had 
improved  a  farm  of  thirty  acres  between  the  Old  Fort  and  the  new 
settlements  of  Peoria.  In  1790  he  was  again  in  Chicago  and  probably 
intermittently  for  five  or  six  years.  In  this  same  year,  on  October  4, 
Susanne,  the  natural  daughter  of  Point  du  Sable  and  an  Indian  woman, 
married  Jean  Baptiste  Pelletier  at  Cahokia,  and  on  October  7,  1799, 
a  child  born  of  this  union  was  baptized  in  the  Old  Cathedral  at  St. 
Louis.  The  entry  states  that  Pelletier's  spouse,  Susanne  Point  Sable, 
was  "Habit  a  Chicagou"  In  1796  he  appeared  at  Mackinac.  The 
next  record  of  him  is  as  a  witness  or  juror  on  September  29,  1802,  in 
the  St.  Clair  County,  Illinois  (then  Indiana  Territory),  Court  of  Com- 
mon Pleas. 

The  first  positive  record  I  have  found  of  Point  du  Sable's  residence 
in  Missouri  is  in  1805,  when  he  purchased  some  land  in  St.  Charles 
County  from  a  negro  named  Rondin.  The  records  show,  from  this 
time  on  until  June,  1813,  several  transfers  of  property  in  the  city  and 
county  of  St.  Charles  which  were  made  jointly  by  Jean  Baptiste  Point 
Sable  and  "Baptiste  Pointsable,"  as  the  names  were  usually  written  to 
distinguish  father  and  son.  p 

In  June,  1813,  as  "Jean  Baptiste  Point  de  Sabre,"  he  conveyed  a 
lot  and  house  in  the  city  of  St.  Charles,  together  with  all  of  his  other 
property  of  various  kinds,  to  Eulalia  Barada,  wife  of  Michael  Derais. 
He  was  probably  ill  at  the  time,  as  the  consideration  mentioned  was 
her  promise  to  care  for  him  in  his  illness  and  to  bury  him  in  the  Catholic 
Cemetery  at  St.  Charles.  The  names  appearing  on  the  records,  "Point 
du  Sable,"  "Point  Sable,"  and  "Point  Sabre,"  are  only  variations  of 
Point  du  Sable;  the  title  to  the  property  involved  in  each  case  being 
traceable  to  the  same  man.  It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  Point  du 
Sable  always  signed  simply  with  his  initials,  "  J.  B.  P.  S.,"  as  shown  in 
the  cut  above. 

The  son,  Baptiste  Point  du  Sable,  Jr.,  died  sometime  prior  to  Feb- 
ruary 17,  1814,  as  letters  of  administration  were  then  granted  at  St. 
Charles,  Missouri,  on  his  estate  to  Henry  Hight.  No  heirs  were  then 
given  and  no  files  in  the  case  are  to  be  found  in  the  Probate  Court. 
In  July,  1814,  Hight  was  removed  and  letters  were  granted  to  Jean 
Baptiste  Pointsable,  Sr.,  but  there  are  no  files  in  that  case.  In  Sep- 

Appendix  155 

tember,  1814,  "J.  B.  P.  S.,  alias  John  B.  Pointsable,"  applied  to  the 
court  to  take  the  benefit  of  the  acts  of  the  Territory  concerning  in- 
solvent debtors,  and  to  be  released  from  imprisonment. 

Whether  it  was  the  early  Chicago  settler,  or  the  son,  who  was  on 
this  expedition,  it  is  difficult  to  determine  absolutely. 


AUGUSTE  DUROCHER  was  born  about  1779,  as  the  record  of  his 
marriage  to  Marie  Louise  Hortiz,  widow  of  Joseph  Laprise,  solem- 
nized in  St.  Louis,  April  4,  1839,  states  that  he  was  then  about  sixty 
years  old.  He  had  contracted  an  alliance  with  this  lady  many  years 
previous.  The  church  records  of  the  St.  Louis  Cathedral  show  that 
there  were  born  of  this  couple:  Marie  Claire,  November  22,  1821, 
who  married  at  St.  Louis,  January  7,  1839,  Louis  Dessaint  of  Quebec; 
Auguste  Edmond,  July  25,  1825;  and  Joseph,  May  23,  1827.  Marie 
Durocher,  widow  of  Auguste,  died  December  30,  1863,  leaving  the  fol- 
lowing heirs:  Marie  Dessaint,  then  living  at  Davenport,  Iowa,  daugh- 
ter; Benjamin  Durocher,  son,  living  at  Fort  Benton;  Louise  Tetu, 
daughter;  Julia,  wife  of  Edmond  Philibert,  granddaughter;  Augustus 
Schaeffer,  grandson,  children  of  her  daughter  Eloise. 

On  May  16,  1814,  Joseph  Philibert  and  his  company  started  on  an 
expedition  to  the  Arapaho  country,  and  Durocher  accompanied  him 
as  interpreter.  Upon  the  return  of  the  Philibert  party  Durocher  con- 
ducted a  dancing  school  at  Mr.  Sanguinet's  house  and  continued  this 
profession  for  two  years.  On  January  26,  1819,  he  held  his  last  ball, 
so  the  newspaper  advertisement  reads.  He  was  next  heard  of  as  a 
tavern  keeper  on  North  Main  Street  in  St.  Louis  in  1822.  Growing 
tired  of  this  monotonous  life,  he  joined,  in  1829,  the  Kansas  Outfit 
of  the  American  Fur  Company,  as  a  boatman.  The  next  year  he  re- 
engaged himself  with  the  Company  as  boatman  and  hunter  in  the 
Upper  Missouri  Outfit  and  was  stationed  at  Fort  Union.  He  remained 
in  this  outfit  until  the  fall  of  1833,  when  he  returned  to  St.  Louis. 
Durocher  seems  to  have  remained  in  St.  Louis  for  about  fifteen  years, 
as  the  directories  and  church  records  indicate  that  he  was  there  in 
1839,  1845,  and  1848.  In  1851  Mrs.  Auguste  Durocher  is  listed  in  the 
city  directory  as  a  widow.  In  about  1850  Auguste  Durocher  stopped 
in  St.  Joseph,  Missouri,  at  the  home  of  Pierre  Harnois,  who  had  been 


a  gunsmith  in  the  American  Fur  Company  for  many  years.  He  asked 
Mr.  Harnois  to  care  for  some  papers  which  he  was  leaving  until  his 
brother,  who  closely  resembled  himself,  should  call  for  them.  Mr. 
Durocher  stated  that  he  was  going  to  the  Sandwich  Islands,  and  that 
he  had  previously  been  working  in  the  mines  of  California.  He  was 
never  heard  from  after  that,  nor  is  there  any  record  of  him  in  St.  Louis 
after  1848.  He  probably  left  St.  Louis  for  the  California  gold-fields 
in  1849. 


ANTOINE  CITOLEUX,  dit  Langevin,  is  usually  referred  to  as  Cito- 
leur,  although  sometimes  as  Sitoleur  and  Citolou.  He  was  the  son 
of  Jean  Baptiste  and  Rosalie  (Pilon)  Citoleux.  On  June  15,  1813,  at 
St.  Louis,  he  married  Adrienne  Trudeau,  daughter  of  the  schoolmaster 
Jean  B.  and  Madeleine  (Roy)  Trudeau.  His  wife  died  August  24, 
1813,  aged  seventeen  years;  the  church  record  of  the  burial  states 
that  she  was  the  wife  of  Antoine  Sitoleur,  a  "traveller."  After  the 
return  of  this  expedition,  Citoleux  remained  in  St.  Louis  for  several 
years;  at  least,  we  have  evidence  that  he  was  there  from  June,  1814, 
to  1816.  He  probably  continued  in  the  fur  trade,  although  the  only 
record  we  find  of  him  in  that  connection  is  in  October,  1823,  when  he 
was  in  command  of  a  Missouri  Fur  Company  expedition,  with  which 
Jean  Eymas  and  Joseph  A.  Sire  went  as  voyageurs  and  hunters.  While 
on  his  way  from  Fort  Kiowa  on  the  Missouri  River  to  the  Little  Mis- 
souri, and  in  contemplation  of  a  detour  alone  into  dangerous  country, 
Citoleux  decided  to  make  his  will.  It  was  written  by  Sire  in  French, 
to  which  Citoleux  signed  his  name  by  making  his  mark,  and  Sire  and 
Eymas  signed  as  witnesses.  It  was  a  very  short  document,  and  the 
only  bequest  was  to  his  nephew  and  god-son,  Antoine  Louis  Trudeau, 
son  of  his  brother-in-law,  Louis  Trudeau.  The  estate  consisted  of  a 
house  and  lot  in  St.  Louis  and  two  notes  signed  by  Joseph  Leblond 
and  Joseph  Roture,  respectively.  Neither  of  these  notes  could  be  col- 
lected, as  Leblond  died  insolvent  and  Roture  "had  gone  to  the  Spanish 
country."  The  will  was  lost  for  some  time,  and  Sire  and  Eymas  made 
affidavits  concerning  its  contents.  While  the  will,  which  was  dated 
October  15,  1823,  does  not  state  the  place  at  which  it  was  made,  Sire, 
in  his  affidavit,  says  it  was  done  at  the  island  called  Simoneau.  Ey- 
mas states  that  the  next  day  after  the  publishing  of  the  will  by  Cito- 

Appendix  157 

leux,  and  at  a  distance  of  about  thirty  miles  below  the  Little  Missouri, 
he  and  Citoleux  parted,  Citoleux  to  go  to  the  Arikaras  village  on  the 
Little  Missouri,  and  Eymas  and  Sire  to  their  destination;  that  he  never 
saw  Citoleux  afterwards,  but  understood  that  he  had  been  killed  by 
the  Arikaras  soon  after  leaving  him. 


Taken  from  the  Account  Book,  kept  by  Manuel  Lisa  himself,  the 
original  of  which  is  in  the  Kansas  State  Historical  Society,  Topeka, 

LE  2  MAY  ET  L'AUTRE  LE  6,  1812. 

Reuben  Lewis,  John  Kenton, 

John  C.  Luttig,  Juan  Baptist  Lachapel, 

Louis  Lorimier,  Antoine  Citoleur, 

Charles  Sanguinet,  Antoine  Mercier, 

Michael  E.  Immel,  Ustache  Carier, 

Juan  Baptist  Mayet,  Ant.  &  Abraham  Leroux  [or 
Alexy  Jollet,  Ledoux], 

Francois  Roy,  Chevalier,  Cadet, 

Francois  Laprise,  Charles  Latour, 

Pierre  Lamonde,  William  Brawn  [Brown], 

Pierre  Desseve,  John  Dokerty  [Dougherty], 

Louis  Lajoie,  Caleb  Grenwoods, 

Josef  Lagasse,  desertt,  Brice  Arnold, 

Josef  Leme,  William  Weir, 

Baptiste  Pointsable,  Blan,  Grand  [A  Pety  (Petit)  Blan 
Louis  Manegre,  desert6y  was  in  the  employ  of  the  Corn- 

Andre  St.  Germain,  pany  about  this  time], 

Pedro  Antonio,  Baptiste  Provots, 

Josef  Leclair,  Etienne  Cadron,  dit  St.  Pierre, 

Pierre  Lange,  John  Polly, 

Antoine  Labont6,  Antoine  Peltier, 

Pierre  Larivier,  Antoine  Canga, 

Guiomme  Tardit,  Louis  McKraken, 

Francois  Lecompt,  Edouard  Rose, 

Hipolite  Papin,  Pierre  Marasse, 

Francois  Guenville,  Michel  Rousseau, 

Bte.  Latoulipe,  Pierre  Detalier, 

158  Appendix 

Augte.  Bourbonnois,  Josef  Carrot  [Garreau], 

John  Anderson,  Josef  Bourrain, 

Bte.  Alar,  Josef  Elie, 

Gabriel  Agot,  Baptiste  Antoine,  dit  Machecou, 

L.  T.  Dejardin,  Louis  Archambeau, 

Daniel  Larrison,  Isaac  Fouche, 

Paul  Pereau,  Pierre  Chaine, 

Philip  Fontaine,  Francois  Oulle, 

Nicolas  Glineau,  Toussain  Charboneau, 

Josef  Bissonet,  James  H.  Audrin  [Audrain], 

Louis  Bissonet,  dit  Bijou,  Louis  Delibac, 

Josef  Joyal,  Morice  Leduc, 

Ren6  Jussome  [Jusseaume],  Louis  Chatelreau, 

Pierre  Primeau,  Alexander  Toulouse, 

Gueniche  St.  Pierre,  Louis  Norman, 

George,  negr e. 

Pour  serche  les  Chasseures  qui  eiet  sur  la  Rre.  des  Espagnal  et  Arapaos — 
7  Sept.  1812. 

M.  Ch.  Sanguinet #35°. 

Cadet  Chevalier 300. 

Ch.  Latour 300. 

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Carondelet,  St.  Charles, 

Florissant,  Ste.  Genevieve, 

Fort  Chartres,  St.  Louis, 

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Agot,  Gabriel:  158. 
Alar,  Jean  Baptiste:  sketch  of,  59; 
engagt,  158. 

Alar  family:  59. 

Albemarle  County,  Va.:  150. 

Allen,  Col.  Dewitt  C.:  152. 

Allison,  Hannah:  31. 

Alvarado:  35. 

American  Fur  Co.:  35,  53,  59,  60, 
77,  103,  in,  148,  155,  156. 

American  Horse,  Indian  Chief:  57. 

American  State  Papers:  cited,  59, 

Anderson,  John:  158. 

Andrew  County,  Mo.:  38. 

Angel,  Eugenia:  148. 

Angel,  John:  148. 

Antelopes:  62. 

Antonio,  Baptiste  Machecou,  dit: 
sketch  of,  100;  engagt,  158. 

Antonio,  Pedro:  100;  engag6,  157. 

Arapaho  Indians:  at  war  with 
Americans,  15;  country  of,  16, 
155;  villages  of,  1 8,  20;  on  Ar- 
kansas River,  76;  described,  101 ; 
trade  with  Sanguinet,  103;  sell 
horses,  114;  mentioned,  142. 

Archambeau,  Louis:  killed,  124; 
buried,  126;  engagt,  158. 

Arck  River:  described,  49. 

Arikara  Fort:  16. 
Arikara  Indians:  at  war  with 
Americans,  15;  country  of,  16; 
near  British  posts,  24;  villages, 
30,  57,  67,  145;  chiefs,  64,  77; 
hunters,  65;  expedition  camped 
below,  66;  war  party,  69,  73;  at- 
tacked Lieut.  Pryor's  party  74; 
traders  at  village,  75;  Saones 
propose  peace  with,  79;  at  Fort 
Manuel,  77,  82,  86,  87,  90,  91, 
98,  101,  103,  105,  108,  114,  128; 
leave  Fort,  84;  trade  horses,  81; 
at  war  with  Sioux,  76,  113,  120; 
in  search  of  squaw,  80;  trade 
corn,  85;  set  prairie  on  fire,  92; 

threaten  Lisa's  party,  92;  tran- 
quil, 93 ;  steal  horses,  93 ;  quar- 
rel with  Sioux,  104;  hunting, 
106;  return  from  Mandans,  107; 
steal  Company's  cat,  no;  .offer 
Lisa  a  present,  no;  pass  by 
Fort,  in;  kill  Sioux  chief,  115; 
want  to  live  at  point  above  Fort, 
1 1 7;  go  to  Cheyennes  for  meat, 
120;  return,  121;  not  feared  by 
Lisa,  126;  described,  52. 

Arkansas  River:  mentioned,  18, 
51,  70,  100,  102,  103,  138,  145; 
described,  76. 

Armstead,  Montana:  135. 

Arnold,  Brice:  157. 

Arrow  Rock,  Mo.:  19;  block- 
house, 34. 

Ashley,  William:  35,  73. 

Aspinwall,  Neb.:  41. 

Assiniboine  River:  136. 

Astorians:  38,  57,  73,  77. 

Atchison  County,  Mo.:  41. 

Atkinson,  Gen.  Henry:  45,  136, 
138,  148. 

Audrin,  James  H.:  158. 

Audubon,  J.  J.:  cited,  91. 

Bad  River  (sometimes  called  Little 

Missouri  and  Teton) ;  described, 


Baird,  James:  17,  35. 
Bald-pated  Prairie:  42. 
Barada,  Eulalia:  154. 
Bardstown,  Ky.:  151. 
Bates,  Frederick:  145. 
Bates  County,  Mo.:  50,  52. 
Bazile  Creek:  53. 
Beaux  Soleil  Island:  41. 
Beckwourth.  James:  cited,  64. 
Beede,  Dr.  A.  McG.:  Missionary 

at  Fort  Yates,  N.  D.,  quoted, 

55,  56,  57,  68. 
Belief ontaine:    see  Fort  Bellefon- 

Bennett,  Lieut.  Thomas:  154. 



Bent  &  St.  Vrain:  140. 
Bergan,  Marguerite:  79. 
Berger  River:  described,  29. 
Berthelot,  Alexis:  102. 
Bertrand,  Louise :  1 1 1 . 
Big  Bend  (Grand  Detour):  57,  61, 


Big  Elk,  Indian  chief:  56. 
Big  Horn  River:  described,  77. 
Big  Horse,  Oglala  chief:  56;  sketch 

of,  57- 
Big  Man,  Arikara  chief:  sketch  of, 

Big  Nemaha  River:  described,  40. 

Big  Sioux  River:  described,  47; 
mentioned,  51. 

Big  White,  Mandan  chief:  see 

Bijou,  Louis:  see  Bissonet. 

Bijou  Fork:  140. 

Bijou  Hills,  S.  D.:    57,  149. 

Bijou's  Trading  Post:  56,  57,  58. 

Billeau,  dit  Lesperance,  Jean  Bap- 
tiste:  ill. 

Billeau,  dit  Lesperance,  Pelagic: 

Bird  Woman:  see  Sakakawea. 

Bismarck,  N.  D.:  74,  135. 

Bissonet,  Joseph  ^149. 

Bissonet,  Louis:  joins  expedition, 
34;  makes  signal  fires,  54;  with 
Yankton  Sioux,  56;  trading- 
house  finished,  58;  arrives  at 
Fort  Manuel,  79;  loads  canoe, 
80;  reported  killed,  104,  105; 
answers  Lisa's  letter,  109; 
sketch  of,  148;  engagt,  158. 

Blackbird,  Omaha  chief:  46,  49. 

Blackbird  Hill:  described,  46. 

Black  Buffalo,  Teton  Sioux  chief: 
sketch  of,  56. 

Black  Hills:  5.7,  °3,  70. 

Blackfeet  Indians:  mentioned,  57, 
70,  106,  144;  reported  to  have 
killed  Champlain,  102;  de- 
scribed, 102. 

Black  Snake  Creek:  32. 

Black  Snake  Hills  (St.  Joseph, 
Mo.):  55,88,147. 

Bledsoe,  Anthony:  52. 

Black  Sky,  Sioux  chief:  56,  58. 
Blan,  Grand:  157. 
Blood  Indians:  102. 
Bloomfield,  Mo.:  52. 
Bois  Brul6  Indians:  57. 
Bois,  Catherine  des:  79. 
Boite,  Sioux  chief:  82. 
Boiler,  H.  A.:     cited,  105. 
Bol ton,  Herbert  E.:  143. 
Bonhomme  County,  S.  D.:  49,  54. 
Bonhomme  Island:  described,  49. 
Bonhomme  Township,  Mo.:  28. 
Boone  District:  123. 
Boonslick,  Mo. :  19. 
Boonville,  Mo.:  31. 
Boucherelle,  Alphonzo:  88. 
Bougainville,  Charlotte   Peman- 

pieh:  52.^ 

Bourbonnois,  Auguste:  158. 
Bourgmont,  Etienne  Venyard  de: 


Bourrain,  Josef :  158. 
Bow  Creek:  49,  51. 
Boyer  River:  described,  44. 
Brackenridge,    H.  M.:    cited,  44, 

46,  49,  67,  73,  77,  133,  136. 
Bradbury,  John:   cited,  136,  145. 
Bras  Casse,  Sioux  chief:  57. 
Brawn  (Brown^,  William,:  157. 
Brazeaju,  Cecile:  150. 
Bridger,  James:  140. 
Bridger  Range:  135. 
Bright,  Josiah:  150. 
British  agents:  23,  24,  122,  124. 


British  North  West  Company:  15. 

Broken  Arm,  Indian  chief:  57. 

Brown  County,  Kans.:  40. 

Brown,  Widow:  148. 

Brownsville,  Neb.:  41. 

Bru!6  County,  S.  D.:  57. 

Bryant,  Edwin:  cited,  35. 

Buchanan  County,  Mo.:  147. 

Buffalo  County,  S.  D.:  61. 

Bullet  (Cannon  Ball)  River:    de- 
scribed, 107. 

Cabanne  &  Co.:  144. 
Cabre:  62. 



Cadron,    Etienne,  dit   St.  Pierre: 

Cahokia,  111.:  79.  80,  89,  154. 

Caledonia,  III.:  146. 

Calhoun,  Neb.:  45. 

Callaway,  Capt.  James:  35. 

Callaway  County,  Mo. :  30. 

Campbell,  Robert:  152. 

Campbell,  William:  152. 

Canga,  Antoine:  157. 

Cannonball  River:  mentioned,  52, 
67,  107. 

Cape  Girardeau,  Mo.:  51,  129. 

Carboneau,  Elizabeth:  140. 

Carlyle,  111.:  146. 

Carondelet,  Mo.:  29,91. 

Carriere,  Baptiste:  77. 

Car'riere,  Eustache:  on  fall  hunt, 
77;  sketch  of,  77,  79;  reported 
killed,  98;^  engagt,  157. 

Carriere,  Michel:  77. 

Carrollton,  111.:  146. 

Cass  County,  Neb.:  41. 

Casse,  Emelie:  114. 

Casse,  Joseph  Laderoute,  dit:  see 

Castor  River:  52. 

Castro:  35. 

Catlin,  George:  74. 

Cats  in  trading-posts:  62,  63. 

Cedar  County,  Neb.:  45,  49. 

Cedar  Creek:  61. 

Cedar  Island:  46,  61. 

Cerre",  Gabriel:  114. 

Chabpnard:  140. 

Chahik-si-chakiko:  69. 

Chaine,  Isadore:  89. 

Chaine,  Pierre:  sketch  of,  89;  en- 
gaged to  hunt,  91 ;  sent  for  stolen 
horses,  93;  hunting,  94, 99;  goes 
to  Cheyennes'  camp,  97;  engagt, 

Chambers,  Samuel:  17,  35. 

Chambersburg,  Pa.:  143. 

Champlain,  Jean  Baptiste:  leader 
of  party,  16,  17,  142;  on  Platte, 
18;  death  of,  19:  search  for, 
20;  reported  killed  by  Blackfeet, 
102;  sketch  of,  102. 

Chappell,  Phil  E.:  cited,  29,  32. 

Charbonneau,  Jean  Baptiste:  134, 

Charbonneau,  Lizette:     133,  140. 

Charbonneau,  Toussaint:  24; 
alarms  Fort,  78;  goes  to  Gros- 
ventre  station,  79,  86,  89,  127; 
returns,  83,  92;  to  Saone  camp, 
97;  stirs  up  Indians,  84;  at 
Ankara  village,  93;  prepares  to 
trade  with  Grosventres,  109;  re- 
turns from  village,  121;  warn- 
ings to,  124;  wife  dies,  126; 
escort  returns,  128;  husband 
of  Sakakawea,  132;  wives  of, 
133;  children  of,  133,  134,  140; 
sketch  of,  135;  pay  as  inter- 
preter, 140;  engagt,  158. 

Charbonneau,  Toussaint,  Jr. :  133. 

Charbonniere:  described,  28. 

Charles,  Mary:  142. 

Charles,  a  Negro  boy:  drowns,  59. 

Charrette:  seejarret. 

Charlottesville,  Va. :  151. 

Chatelreau,  Louis:  158. 

Chemin  River:  153. 

Chene:  see  Chaine. 

Cherokee  Indians:  151. 

Chevalier,  Cadet:  in  search  of 
Champlain's  party,  20,  no,  158; 
messenger,  101;  sketch  of,  101; 
goes  to  meet  Sanguinet,  103; 
death  of,  no;  engag£,  157. 

Chevalier,  Louis:  101. 

Chevelures  ("The  Scalps"):  104. 

Cheveux  Loup,  Grosventre  Indian: 
92,  122. 

Cheyenne  Indians:  at  war  with 
Americans,  15;  attacked  Kansas 
Indians,  37;  mentioned,  63,  86, 
•101,  112;  at  Fort  Manuel,  70, 
98,  106,  120;  described,  70; 
chiefs,  92,  108,  120;  camped 
above  Fort,  97;  hunting,  99, 100; 
leave  Fort,  107;  carry  pipe  to 
Arikaras  and  Sioux,  113;  fight 
with  Sioux,  115;  advise  Arik- 
aras to  leave  Fort,  121;  warn 
Charbonneau,.  124;  difficult  to 
trade  with,  125;  Sioux  steal 
horses  from,  127. 



Cheyenne  River:  mentioned,   52, 

64;  described,  63,  70. 
Chicago,  111.:  first  settler  of,  153, 


Chicago  River:  153. 
Chihuahua:  36,  723. 
Chippewa  Indians:  54. 
Chittenden,  H.  M.:  cited,  16,  50, 

51,  68,  76,  94,  106. 
Chouteau,  A.  P.:  43,  138. 
Chouteau,  Auguste:  13,  28, 43, 91, 

102,  138,  145,  148. 
Chouteau,  Marie  Louise:  53. 
Chouteau,  Pierre:  28,  50,  102. 
Chouteau  Bluffs,  S.  D.:  54. 
Chouteau,  Cabanne  &  Co.:  HI. 
Chouteau-DeMun  expedition:  70, 

103,  138. 

Cij a,  Osage  Indian  woman:  30. 

Citoleux,  Antoine:  109,  no; 
sketch  of,  156;  engag6,  157. 

Citoleux,  Jean  B.:  156. 

Clark,  George  Rogers :  153. 

Clark,  William:  employs  John  C. 
Luttig,  14;  chose  site  of  Fort 
Osage,  34;  council  with  Indians, 
56;  guardian  of  Charbonneau 
children,  134;  letter  to  Char- 
bonneau, 137;  deed  to,  138;  re- 
port to,  144.;  recommends  Reu- 
ben Lewis,  150. 

Clay  County,  Mo.:  151,  152. 

Clay  County,  S.  D.:  48. 

Clemson,  Col.  Eli  B. :  in  command 
of  Fort  Osage,  34;  sketch  of,  145, 

Clemson  family:  146. 

Cold  Water  Creek:  27. 

Ccle,  Mrs.  Hannah:  sketch  of,  31. 

Cole.  Stephen:  31. 

Cole,  William  T.:  killed  by  Indi- 
ans, 31. 

Cole  family:  31. 

Cole  County,  Mo.:  65. 

Colter,  John:  65,  145. 

Columbia  Fur  Company:  62. 

Conde,  Marie  Anne:  149. 

Conde,  Dr.  Auguste  A.:  149. 

Cooper,  Miss  Alice:  135. 

Cooper  County,  Mo.:  31,  65. 

Corson  County,  S.  D.:  66,  67,  68. 

C6te,  Alexis:  91. 

Cdte,  Felicite:  91. 

C6te  Grand  Brule:  42. 

Cote  sans  Dessein:  described,  30. 

Coues,  Elliott:  cited,  29,  38,  43, 
44,  87. 

Council  Bluffs:  16,  44,  148,  151; 
described,  45. 

Council  Grove:  37. 

Coupe  a  Jacques:  44. 

Coupe  Loisell:  described,  45. 

Coyner,  D.  H.:  mentioned,  19. 

Crawford,  T.  Hartley:  letter  to, 

Crawford  County,  Iowa:  45. 

Crawford  County,  Mo.:  65. 

Creek  Indians:  100. 

Cromwell:  131. 

Crooked  Hand,  Sioux  chief:  57, 

Crooks,  Ramsey:  44. 

Crow  Indians:  at  war  with  Amer- 
icans, 15;  give  information  about 
Champlain,  20;  mentioned,  35, 
68,  100,  103,  106;  described,  78. 

Dabney,  Mildred:  151. 
Dakota  City,  Neb. :  51. 
Dakota  County,  Neb. :  47,  49. 
Dakota  Indians:  51, 57;  described, 


Danis,  Charles:  100. 
Danis,  Jean  Baptiste:   sketch  of, 


Davenport,  Iowa:  155. 
Delassus,   Gov.    Carlos   Dehault: 

88,  144. 

Dejardin,  L.  T.:  158. 
Delaware  Indians:  52. 
Delibac,  Louis:  158. 
Delisle,  Jean  Baptiste:  147. 
Delisle,  Therese  Bienvenue:  147. 
Demarais,  Louis  Amable:  43. 
Demaret,  Josette:  29. 
De  Mun,  Julius:  138. 
De  Peyster,  Arent:  153. 
Derais,  Michael:  154. 
Desgagniers,  Catherine:  77. 
Desmarets,  Louise:  59. 
Desmarets,  Joseph:  59. 



De  Smet,  Pierre  J.:  cited,  106. 
Des  Moines  River:  45,  51. 
Dessaint,  Louis:  155. 

Desseve,  Pierre:  157. 

Detalier,  Pierre:  157. 

Detroit,  Mich.:  HI,  145. 

Devil's  Lake,  N.  D.:  49. 

Dickson's  Post:  49. 

Dixon  County,  Neb.:  48. 

Dodier,  Elizabeth:  91. 

Doniphan  County,  Kans.:  40. 

Dorien  Island:  61. 

Dougherty,  Maj.  John:  65,   157; 
sketch  of,  151. 

Dougherty,  John  Kerr:  153. 

Dougherty,  Lewis  B.:  153. 

Dougherty,  O'Fallon:  153. 

Douglas,  Walter  B.:  acknowledg- 
ments to,  25;  cited,  65,  142. 

Drouillard,  George:  78,  HI. 

Dubuque,  Iowa:  13. 

Dubuque,  Julien:  mentioned,  13, 

Duncan:  131. 

Dupre,  Eugene:  53. 

Duquette,  Francois:  60. 

Durand,  British  trader:  153. 

Durocher,  Auguste:  carries  mess- 
age, 101;  no  news  of,  104;  reach- 
es Fort  Manuel,  105;  leaves  for 
Little  Big  Horn,  HI;  returns, 
112;  ordered  out  of  Fort,  114; 
escorts  Charbonneau,  128; 
sketch  of,  155. 

Durocher  family:  155. 

Eagle's  Feather  (Plume  d'Aigle), 
Ankara  chief:  see  La  Plume. 

Eagle  Feather  Creek:  67. 

Elie,  Joseph:  sketch  of,  79. 

Elk's  Tongue,  Arikara  chief: 
sketch  of,  91;  camp  of,  93. 

Engineer  Cantonment:  44. 

Equipment  for  hunters:  76. 

Eymas,  Jean:  156,  157. 

Fair  Sun  Island:  41. 
Farrar,  Dr.  John:  43. 
Ferguson:  131. 
Fire  Heart  Butte,  N.  D.:  97. 

Fire  Prairie:  described,  33. 
Fire  Prairie  Creek:  33. 
Fishing  Creek,  S.  C.:  65. 
Flathead  Indians:  106. 
Florissant,  Mo.:  28.  59,  77,  79,  88, 

in,  124. 

Floyd's  Bluffs:  47. 
Floyd's  River:  described,  47. 
Fontaine,  Philip:  158 
Fort  Anthony:  122. 
Fort  Atkinson:  45. 
Fort  aux  Cedres:  53. 
Fort   Bellefontaine:  27,   63,    123, 

144,  146. 
Fort  Bent:  76. 
Fort  Benton:  89. 
Fort  Berthold:  52,   64,   74,    135, 


FortBridger:  140. 
Fort  Calhoun:  45. 
Fort  Clark:  33,  148. 
Fort  Clemson:  146.  . 
Fort  Cole:  31. 
Fort  Fiery  Prairie:  33. 
Fort  Kiowa:  156. 
Fort  Laframboise:  62. 
Fort  Laramie:  54,  55. 
Fort  La  Salle:  70. 
Fort  Lea venworth:  34,  152. 
Fort  Lisa,  near  Council  Bluffs:  16, 

44,  144. 

Fort  Madison:  27. 
Fort  Mandan:  15,  79,  142. 
Fort  Manuel:  17,  broken  up,  20; 
location  of,  68;   cleared  for  de- 
fense,  93,    125;    enclosure  fin- 
ished, 93;  baptized,  94. 
Fort  Mason:  123. 
Fort  Massac:  27. 
Fort  Orleans:  32. 
Fort  Os age:    27,  146,  150;    de- 
scribed, 33;  hunters  at,  35. 
FortPembina:  136. 
Fort  Pierre:  55,  137. 
Fort  Pine:  136. 
Fort  Raymond:  77. 
Fort  St.  Michel  "chez  des  Sioux": 


Fort  Snelling:  122. 
FortTecumseh:  62,77. 



Fort  Union:  77,  155. 

Fort  Vincennes :  27.  89. 

Fort  Yates:  68,  124. 

Foster  County,  N.  D.:  49. 

Fouche,  Francois:  in. 

Fouche,  Isaac:  sketch  of,  in;  <rn- 

gagt,  158. 

Fouche,  Michel:  in. 
Fouche,  Pedro:  in. 
Four-Mile  Creek,  N.  D.t  91. 
Fowke,  Gerard:  cited,  32. 
Fox  Indians:  27. 
Franklin  County,  Mo.:  31,   144, 


Franklin,  Mo. :  150. 
Franklin,  Tenn.,  battle  of:  153. 
Fremont,  John  Charles:  cited,  45, 


French  Fur  Company:  148. 
Fulkerson,W.N.:  138. 

Gage  County,  Neb. :  40. 

Galena,  111.:  142,  150. 

Garciniere,  Don  Andres  Fagot  la: 

Garreau,  Antoine:  64. 

Garreau,  Joseph:  sketch  of,  64; 
returns  from  Arikaras,  68;  wife 
threatens  to  shoot,  84;  leaves 
Fort,  90;  deception  of,  92;  or- 
ders Arikaras  to  steal  horses,  93; 
returns  to  Fort,  94;  at  Saone 
camp,  97;  invites  Sioux  to  go 
hunting,  104;  goes  to  meet  Im- 
me!l,  107;  to  Arikara  village, 
117;  engagt,  158. 

Garreau,  Pierre:  64. 

Gauche  (Left-handed),  Arikara 
chief:  visits  camp,  64;  sketch 
of,  64;  receives  present,  66;  fol- 
lows expedition,  67;  at  Fort,  72, 
79,  86,  89,  99,  106;  mentioned, 
73,  128;  horse  stolen  by  Sioux, 
83;  holds  council,  93;  village 
of,  100;  carries  pipe  to  Chey- 
ennes,  1 10;  returns  from  Chey- 
ennes,  112;  wants  to  live  near 
Fort,  117;  returns  from  hunt, 
1 1 8;  son  blind,  120. 

Geyer,  Senator  Henry  S.:  152. 

Glineau,  Nicolas:  sketch  of,  103; 
goes  to  Mandans,  109,  119;  re- 
covers stolen  horses,  116;  en- 
gagt,  158. 

Goyet,  Marie:  34. 

Graham,  Moses:  14. 

Grand  Detour:  61. 

Grand  Pawnee  Indians:  69. 

Grand  River:  mentioned,  32,  52, 
64,  67;  described,  6$. 

Great  Bend:  61. 

Greenwood,  Caleb:  sketch  of,  35; 
goes  to  Arikaras,  61;  rejoins 
party,  65;  engagt,  157. 

Gregory  County,  S.  D.:  55,  56. 

Grey  Eyes,  Arikara  chief:  sketch 
of,  73;  at  Fort  Manuel,  76; 
mentioned,  91;  has  Company's 
horses,  93,  94;  returns  horses, 

Grey  Head,  Mandan  chief:  90. 

Grier,  Robert  C:  53. 

Grosventre  Indians:  at  war  with 
Americans,  15;  Hidatsa,  52; 
post  of,  63;  kill  an  Arikara,  68; 
described,  68;  mentioned,  69, 
84,  106,  136;  trade  horses,  73; 
traders  return  from,  74,  87,  12 1 ; 
steal  horses,  78;  kill  Mandan 
chiefs,  83;  send  pipe  to  Arik- 
aras, 87;  battle,  88;  traders 
with,  89;  go  to  Arikaras,  93; 
kill  trappers,  101;  Sioux  kills, 
Ii8;  capture  Bird  Woman,  132; 
battle  between  Mandans  and 
Grosventres,  139. 

Grosventres  of  the  Prairie,  or  Fall 
Indians:  102. 

Hall,  Rev.  C.  L.:  cited,  132. 

Hannibal,  Mo.:  123. 

Harding  County,  S.  D.:  66. 

Harmony  Mission:  51,  60. 

Harnois,  Pierre:  155. 

Harper,  Mr.:  151. 

Harrison,  William  Henry:  ^  Gov- 
ernor of  District  of  Louisiana, 

Harrison  County,  Iowa:  45. 

Harrison,  Mo.:  100. 



Hartland,  Kans.:  70. 
Head,  James:  100. 
Hebard,  Dr.  Grace  R.:  135. 
Helie:  see  Elie. 
Hempstead,  Stephen:  142. 
Henry,  Alexander:  cited,  68,  73, 


Henry,  Andrew:  65,  104. 
Hertzog,  Joseph:  153. 
Hertzog,  Mary:  152. 
Hidatsa  group:  78. 
Hidatsa  Indians:  see  Grosventre 


Hidatsa  language:  133. 
Hight,  Henry:  154. 
Hodge,  F.  W.:  cited,  51,  52,  58, 

100,  101. 

Holmes,  Capt.  Reuben:  138. 
Holt  County,  Mo.:  38. 
Hopa-wazhupS:  49. 
Hortiz,  Joseph :  101. 
Hortiz,  Marie  L.:  155. 
Hosmer,  James  K.:  cited,  135. 
Hotonga:  51. 

Howard,  Gen.  Benjamin:  123. 
Hunkpapa  Indians:  57. 
Hunt,  Col.  Thomas:  27,  144. 
Hunt,  Wilson  P.:  64. 
Hyde  County,  S.  D.:  61. 

Ichinipokine  River:  41. 

Ida  County,  Iowa:  45. 

Illinois  River:  70. 

Immell,  Michael  E.:  meets  expe- 
dition, 27;  goes  to  Fort  Osage 
for  dog,  35;  precedes  party  by 
land,  51;  with  Sioux,  54,  56; 
returns  to  camp,  58;  at  Grey 
Eyes'  camp,  94;  hunting,  60, 
80,  8 1,  91,  92,  99;  returns  from 
hunt,  82;  visits  his  wintering 
post  of  1811,  61;  letter  from, 
64;  at  Arikara  village,  83, 85, 93; 
goes  to  Grosventre  village,  86; 
to  Cheyenne  camp,  97;  attends 
Cheyenne  feast,  98;  to  Man- 
dans,  103,  104,  119;  reported 
robbed  by  Cheyennes,  107;  goes 
to  Sioux  camp,  108;  in  search 
of  stolen  horses,  112,  116;  re- 

turns with  horses,  113;  gives 
girl  to  Laderoute,  115;  helps 
Arikaras  move,  117;  returns 
from  Mandans,  120;  reconnoi- 
tres, 126;  sketch  of,  143;  engagt, 


Indian  chief  fires  his  gun  back- 
ward: 1 08. 

Indian  spies:  56. 

Indian  Territory:  37,51. 

Indians  designate  site  of  trading- 
posts:  67. 

Inkpe  Luta,  Indian  chief:  57. 

Iowa  Creek:  48. 

Iowa  Indians:  23,  37,  51. 

Iowa  Point:  40. 

Irving,  Washington:  cited,  64. 

Isle  a  Beau  Soleil:  41. 

Istinhmunma  (The  Sleeper),  In- 
dian chief:  55. 

Jackson  County,  Mo.:  33. 
Jacques  (James)  River:  described, 

49;  mentioned,  51 
James,  Thomas:  cited,  68. 
Janot:  see  Lachapelle. 
Jarret,  Henry:  88. 

arret,  Susanne:  88 

efferson,  Thomas:  52. 

efferson  Forks:  135. 

ohnson,  William  J. :  88. 

ohnson  County,  Neb. :  40. 

ollet,  Alexy:  157. 

ones,  Robert:  144. 

oyal,  Antoine:  88. 

oyal,  Joseph:  sketch  of,  88;  with 

Glineau,  104;  engagi,  158. 
Joyal  family:  88. 
Jusseaume,  Josette  Therese:    77, 


Jusseaume,  Rene:  mentioned,  74, 
77.  137;  sketch  of,  79;  returns 
from  Grosventre  village,  83;  ex- 
cites Indians,  84;  with  Glineau, 
104;  horses  stolen,  116;  engagt, 

Jusseaume,  Toussaint:  79. 

Kago-ha-mi  (Little  Raven  or  Lit- 
tle Crow),  Mandan  chief:  83. 



Kansas  City,  Mo.:  36,  147. 

Kansas  Indians:  imprison  Ezekiel 
Williams,  19,  35;  described,  36; 
mentioned,  50;  villages,  35,  36. 

Kansas  Outfit:  155. 

Kansas  River:  mouth  of,  23;  men- 
tioned, 36,  37,  51,  70,  78,  101. 

Kansas  State  Historical  Society: 

Kaskaskia,  111.:  records,  30;  men- 
tioned, 77,  80,  ioo,  1 14. 

Kearny,  Stephen  W.:  64, 123, 136, 

Kearny  County,  Kans.:  70. 

Keeney,  Mrs.  Mary  Hempstead: 

Kenel,  S.  D.:  68. 

Kennedy,  George:  144. 

Kennerly,  James:  130. 

Kenton,  John:  157. 

Kinzie,  Mrs.  John  H.:  153. 

Kipp,  James:  137. 

Knife  River:  68,  136. 

Knox  County,  Neb.:  49,  53,  54. 

Labadie,  Joseph:  88. 
Labadie,  Therese:  88. 
Labont£,  Antoine:  157. 
Labuiche,  Geneyieve:  88. 
Lachapelle,  Bazile:  30. 
Lachapelle,  David:  30. 
Lachapelle,  Jean  Baptiste:  sketch 

of,  30;  kills  bear,  32;  on  hunt, 

77;  reported  to  have  been  killed, 

98;  engagt,  157. 
Lachapelle,  dit  J anot:  30. 
Lacroix,  Paul:  91. 
Laderoute,  Joseph:  ordered  out  of 

Fort,  114,  115;  sketch  of,  114; 

deserted,  117;  escorts  Charbon- 

neau,  128. 

Ladouceur,  Elinore:  149. 
Ladouceur,  Pierre:  149. 
Lafayette  County,  Mo.:  33. 
Lafarque,  Jean:  leader  of  party, 

1 6,   142;    in  Spanish  country, 

102;  sketch  of,  103. 
Lagasse,  Josef :  157. 
La  Garciniere,  Don  Andres  Fagot: 


Laidlaw,  William:  ,137. 
Lajeunesse, •:  meets  expedi- 
tion, 34. 

Lajeunesse,  Jacques:  34. 
Lajeunesse,  Jean  B.:  34. 
Lajeunesse,  Marie:  77. 
Lajeunesse  family:  34. 
Lajoie,  Joseph:  88. 
Lajoie,  Louis:    sketch  of,  88;  en- 

mt>  157- 

Lake  Nepegon:  101. 

Lake  Winnepeg:  HI. 

Lamberton,  N.  J.:  123. 

Lamonde,  Pierre:  157. 

Lancaster  County,  Neb.:  40. 

Lange,  Joseph:  in. 

Lange,  Pierre:  arrives  at  Fort, 
no,  in;  goes  to Mandans,  119; 
engagt,  157. 

Langue  de  Biche  (Elk's  Tongue), 
Ankara  chief:  sketch  of,  91; 
camp  of,  93;  horses  recovered 
recovered  from,  116;  situation 
of,  126;  at  Fort,  128. 

Lapere,  Cecile:  148. 

Lapere,  Peter:  148. 

La  Plume  d'Aigle  (Eagle's  Feath- 
er), Arikara  chief:  sketch  of,  67; 
at  Fort,  72,  75,  93,  120;  carries 
pipe  to  Mandans,  1 10. 

Laprise,  Francois:  157. 

Laprise,  Joseph:  155. 

Larivier,  Pierre:  157. 

Laroche,  Marie  J.:  89. 

Larocque,  Francois  Antoine:  137. 

Larose,  Cecile:  147. 

Larpenteur,  Charles:  cited,  64,89. 

Larrison,  Daniel:  sketch  of,  35; 
engag6,  158. 

Larrison,  John:  35. 

Latour,  Amable:  Hi. 

Latour,  Charles:  in  search  of 
Champ  lainv's  party,  20,  158; 
arrives  at  Fort  Manuel,  no; 
sketch  of,  no;  ordered  out  of 
Fort,  114;  accompanies  Char- 
bonneau,  128;  engag6,  15  7- 

Latour  family:  in. 

LaTulipe:  43. 

Latulippe,  Elizabeth:  43. 



Latulippe,  Francois:  43. 

Latulippe,  Jean  Baptiste:  sketch 
of,  42;  engag^  157. 

Laviolette,  Catherine:  59. 

Laviolette,  Julia:  59. 

Laviolette,  Marie  L.:  139. 

Lawrence  County,  Ark.:  14. 

Lawrencetown,  Ark.:  14. 

Lean  Wolf,  Indian  chief:  140. 

L'Eau  Qui  Court  (Niobrara)  Riv- 
er: described,  53;  mentioned, 

L'Eau  Qui  Monte:  53. 

Leavenworth,  Col.  Henry:  122. 

Lebanon,  111.:  146. 

Leblond,  Joseph:  156. 

Le  Bprgne  (One-eyed),  Grosventre 
chief:  sketch  of,  73;  mentioned 
121 ;  in  disgrace,  122. 

Leclair,  Joseph :  127,157. 

Leclerc,  Therese :  1 1 1 . 

Lecompte,  Francois :  sketch  of,  78 ; 
engagt,  157. 

Lecompte,  Louis:  148. 

Leduc,  Morice:  158. 

Le  Grand,  Cheyenne  Indian:    87. 

Le  Grand  (Partizan),  Dakota  war- 
rior: 90. 

Le  Gross  (Big  Man),'  Arikara  chief: 
sketch  of,  77;  at  Fort  Manuel, 
89,  94,  106;  returns  from  Chey- 
ennes,  119. 

Leme,  Josef:  157. 

Lemonde,  dit  La  Malice,  Charles : 

Le  Nez  (The  Nose),  Sioux  chief: 
sketch  of,  55. 

Lepage,  Julia:  59. 

Leroux  (or  Ledoux),  Abraham: 

Leroux,  Antoine:  157. 

Lessaroco,  Cheyenne  chief:  86. 

Le  Sueur,  Minn.:  57. 

Lewis,  Meriwether:  74,  139,  150. 

Lewis,  Reuben:  60;  prairie  dog, 
71;  on  Little  Big  Horn  River, 
77, 101;  message  from,  100, 105; 
letter  to,  in;  sketch  of,  150; 
in  list  of  engages,  157. 

Lewis,  T.  H.:  cited,  56. 

Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition:  men 
tioned,  11,  29,  32,  34,  37,  38, 
42,  44,  45,  48,  49,  51,  62,  64,  70, 
73,  87,  90,  102,  106,  136,  140, 
145;  map  of,  53;  held  council 
with  Indians,  56;  quoted,  58; 
at  Arikara  village,  67;  gave  Le 
Borgne  a  swivel  gun,  73;  at  Fort 
Mandan,  79,  83;  interpreter  for, 

Lexington,  Mo. :  153. 

Liberty,  Mo.:  151,  153. 

Lisa,  Cristobal  de:  142. 

Lisa,Manuel:  returns  to  St.  Louis, 
15,  16;  expeditions  of,  17,  29, 
35;  sends  Company's  boat  back, 
52;  difficulties  with  Indians,  18, 
I9>  92,  93;  trade  with  South- 
west Indians,  20;  success  of,  21; 
strategy  of,  23;  joins  expedition 
at  the  Charbonniere,  28;  puts 
hogs  in  river,  38;  escapes  drown- 
ing, 46;  monopoly  of  Osage 
trade,  50;  holds  council  with 
Indians,  56, 66;  servant  drowns, 
59;  gives  presents  to  chiefs,  58, 
74,120;  trading-posts  of,  6 1, 66, 
68,  77;  sends  for  cat,  62;  fort 
at  Grand  River,  66;  injured,  69; 
goes  to  Grosventre  village,  69; 
returns,  70,  73 ;  talk  with  Sioux 
chief,  77;  partnership  with 
Drouillard,  78;  proposes  peace 
between  Saone  and  Arikara  In- 
dians, 79;  at  Arikara  village,  83 ; 
engages  Charbonneau,  86;  takes 
pipe  of  Grosventres  to  Arikaras, 
87;  with  Saone  Sioux,  90;  urges 
Arikaras  to  hunt,  92;  at  Chey- 
ennes'  camp,  97;  invited  to 
Cheyenne  feast,  98;  hunting, 
99;  employees  of,  100,  102,  103, 
in,  114;  sends  letter  to  Bijou, 
105;  promises  horses  to  Arik- 
aras, 106;  men  return,  107;  of- 
fers friendship  to  Sioux,  108; 
receives  unpleasant  news  from 
Lewis,  100;  letter  from  Sangui- 
net,  101;  refuses  present  from 
Arikaras,  no;  urges  men  to 

1 84 


hunt,  114;  running  mare  stolen, 

116;  takes  possession  of  Indian 

fort,  1 16;  gives  presents  to  cover 

the  body  of  Gauche 's  son,  120; 

sketch  of,  141;   letter  to  Span- 
^iards,  142;  mentioned,  144. 
Lisa,  Rosalie:  142. 
Little  Berger  River:  29. 
Little  Big  Horn  River,  77,  101, 

in,  142. 

Little  Bow  Creek:  49. 
Little  Bow,  Omaha  chief:  49. 
Little  Cedar  Island:    in  Gregory 

County,  S.  D.,  55. 
Little  Cheyenne  River:  described, 

Little  Crow,  Mandan  chief:  killed 

by  Grosventres,  83. 
Little  Missouri  River  (now  called 

Bad  River):  75,  156,  157. 
Little  Nemaha  River:  described, 


Little  Platte  River:  described,  36. 
Little  Osage  Indians:    village  of, 

32;  mentioned,  50,  51. 
Little  Osage  Island:  location  of, 


Little  Osage  Prairie:  described,  32. 

Little  Osage  River:  50. 

Little  Sioux  River:  described,  45. 

Loisel,  Josephine:  53. 

Loisel,  Regis:  46,  53,  61. 

Long,  Major  S.  H.:  44. 

Lorimier,  Guillaume  de:  52. 

Lorimier,  Louis:  precedes  party 
by  land,  5 1 ;  sketch  of,  5 1 ;  meets 
Sioux  Indians,  55;  goes  by  land 
to  Arikaras,  61;  rejoins  party, 
65;  at  Little  Big  Horn,  77,  101; 
at  Crow  v;llages,  100;  letter 
from,  105;  letter  to,  m;  en- 

T  8*g£,  157. 
Lost  Creek:  53. 
Loutre  Island:  31,  146. 
Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition: 


Lovely,  Major  William  L.:  14. 
Lucas,  J.  B.  C.:  146. 
Luipere  River:  53. 
Lumandiere,  Marie:  30. 

Luttig,  Elizabeth:  14. 

Luttig,  John  C.:  clerk  of  Missouri 
Fur  Company,  12;  merchant  in 
Baltimore,  13;  death  of,  14; 
journal  entries  referred  to,  18, 
!9»  55>  67;  accepts  present  from 
Arikaras,  no;  throws  present 
away,  112;  letters  to,  129-131; 
guardian  of  Charbonneau  chil- 
dren, 133;  contempt  for  Char- 
bonneau, 137;  cngagt,  157. 

Lyman  County,  S.D.:  55,61. 

Machecou,  dit  Antonio,  Baptiste: 
sketch  of,  100;  leaves  Little  Big 
Horn  River,  101;  goes  to  meet 
Sanguinet,  103;  equipped  for 
hunt,  in;  ordered  out  of  Fort, 
114;  returns,  127;  escorts  Char- 
bonneau, 128;  engage,  158. 

McClellan,  Robert:  44,  78. 

McDonald,  Henriette:  146. 

McDowell,  Mr.:  148. 

Mackinac:  148,  153,  154. 

McKnight,  Robert:  17,  35. 

McKnight-Chambers-Baird  Expe- 
dition: 17,  20,  35. 

McKraken,  Louis:  157. 

McMines:  129. 

Malboeuf,  Elizabeth:  34. 

Malbo?uf,  Francois:  34. 

Manaigle:  see  Manegre. 

Mandan  Fort:  15. 

Mandan  Indians:  near  British 
posts,  24;  villages  of,  15,  79; 
allies  of  Arikaras,  52;  men- 
tioned, 57, 68,  104, 133, 136, 138, 
139,  140,  148;  described,  74; 
houses  of,  75;  at  Fort  Manuel, 
8 1,  87,  90,  108,  112,  128;  steal 
horses,  83 ;  demand  a  trader,  99; 
Mandan  chief,  146. 

Mandan,  N.  D.:  74. 

Manegre,  Joseph:  80. 

Manegre,  Louis:  sketch  of,  80;  en- 
gag&,  157- 

Maryland  records:  13. 

Marais  des  Cygnes:  50. 

Marechal,  Francois:  in. 

Maria's  River:  102. 


Marmiton  River:  50. 

Marasse,  Pierre:  157. 

Marks,  Dr.  John:  151. 

Marquette's  map:  referred  to,  50. 

Mason,  Lieutenant  John:  123. 

Masquilonge,  Quebec:  88. 

Matson,  N.:  cited,  153. 

Matthews,  Dr.  Washington:  cited, 
78,  132. 

Maximilian,  Prince  of  Wied:  cited, 
30,  64,  68,  78,  136,  137. 

Mayet,  Jean  Baptiste:  sketch  of, 
29;  cuts  pickets  for  fort,  82,  86; 
engag&,  157. 

Medicine  Men,  Cheyenne  chief: 

Manier,  Agnes:  in. 

Mercier,  Antoine:  sketch  of,  77; 
reported  to  have  been  killed,  98; 
engagi,  157. 

Mercier,  Joseph:  77. 

Merrill,  Rev.  Moses:  35. 

Metaharta  village:  136. 

Mexican  War:  146. 

Micheltorena's  Army:  35. 

Michigan  City,  Ind.:  153. 

Mine  d'Espagne  (Dubuque,  Iowa), 

Minneconjou  Indians:  57. 

Minnesota  Historical  Society:  90. 

Minnetarees:  see  Grosventre  In- 

Mississippi  River:  51;  Upper,  23. 

Missouri  Fur  Company:  men- 
tioned, 11,  13,  15,  30,  35,  55,  64, 
77,  79,  80,  89,  loo,  in,  114,  143, 
144, 149, 156. 

Missouri  Garotte:    14,  15,  17,  144, 

Missouri  Historical  Society:  Ar- 
chives, n,  12,  137;  Collections, 
?7,  S3,  123-^ 

Missouri  Indians:  32,  37,  51. 

Missouri  Intelligencer:  51. 

Missouri  Republican:  152. 

Missouri  River:  Indians  on,  23. 

Missouri  River  Commission  maps: 
cited,  45,  48,  53,  97. 

Mitchell,  Major  D.  D.:  138. 

Mohaw  River:  see  Omaha  River. 

Monier,  Jean  Baptiste:  50. 

Monona  County,  Iowa:  45. 

Montana  Daughters  of  American 
Revolution:  135. 

Montreal,  Canada:  30. 

Moore,  James  C. :  129,131. 

Moreau  River:  64. 

Moreau  Township,  Cooper  Coun- 
ty, Mo.:  65. 

Morton  County,  N.  D.:  91,  97, 

Mosquito  Creek:  described,  44. 

Muhlenberg  County,  Ky.:  65. 

Murray,  Charles  Augustus:  cited, 

Nadeau,  Mrs.  Virginia:  150. 

Nadowa:  see  Nodaway,  38. 

Napoleon,  111.:  146. 

Naulette,  Rene:  34. 

Neil,  Rev.  Francis:  134,  140. 

Nelson  County,  Ky.:  151. 

Nemaha  County,  Kans.:  41. 

Nemaha,  Neb.:  41. 

Nemaha  River,  Big  or  Great:  de- 
scribed, 40. 

Nemaha  River,  Little:  described, 

Neosho  River:  51. 

New  Brunswick,  N.  Y.:  146. 

New  Madrid  County,  Mo.:  100, 

New  Mexico:  17. 

New  Orleans:  13,  149. 

Nez  de  Corbeau,  Sioux  chief: 
sketch  of,  72;  receives  present, 
74;  at  Fort,  8 1,  82. 

Nez  Perces  Indians:  106. 

Nicollet's  Map:    referred  to,  48, 

Niobrara  River:  Poncas  on,  50; 
described,  53;  mentioned,  54, 

Nishnabotna,  Mo. :  41. 
Nishnabotna  River:  described,  41 . 
Nodaway,  Mo.:  38. 
Nodaway  River:    escribed,  38. 
Norman,  Louis:  158. 
North  West  Company:  15, 64,  78 , 
79,  88,  104,  in,  122,  136,  149. 



O'Fallon,  Benjamin:  144,  152. 
Oglala  Indians:  57,  58. 
Ohheenaw  (Le  Grand),  Cheyenne 

Indian:  87. 
Olden,  Mary  C.:  146. 
Oliver,  Ann  Marie:  146. 
Olmstead,  UK:  146. 
Omaha  Indians:     villages  of,  48, 

49;  mentioned,  50,  54,  115,  148; 

described,  51. 
Omaha  River:  47. 
One-eyed,  Grosventre  chief:     sec 

Le  Borgne. 

Ooheneonpa  Indians:  57. 
Ordway,  Sergeant  John:  48. 
Osage  Indians:    rescued  Williams 

from   Kansas   Indians,    19,   35; 

mentioned,  32,  150;    described, 

SO,  51- 

Osage  River:  43,  50,  51,  60,  ipi. 
Otter  Woman:  wife  of  Toussaint 

Charbonneau,  133. 
Otoe  Indiars:     35,  37,   m;    de- 
scribed, 51. 
Owl  River:  64. 
Oulle,  Antoine:  89. 
Oulle,   Francois:     sketch   of,   89; 

hunting,  99;  goes  to  Grosventre 

village,  109;    returns,  121;   en- 

gagt,  IS8- 

Packs  of  furs:  74. 

Papilliar,  Cheyenne  chief:  92. 

Papillon  Creek:  44. 

Papillon,  Neb.:  44. 

Papin,  Hypolite  Leber:  in  charge 
of  Company's  boat,  52;  goes  to 
Grosventre  village,  86;  to  Arik- 
ara  village,  87,  92,  93;  at  Grey 
Eyes'  camp,  94;  goes  to  Bijou's 
trading  -  post,  105;  meets  Im- 
mell,  107;  goes  to  Langue  de 
Biche's  camp,  116;  sketch  of, 
53;  engagt,  157. 

Papin,  Sophie:  88. 

Papin,  Sylvestre:  53. 

Papin  family:  53. 

Papinsville,  Mo.:  50. 

Pariki  (a  horn) :  69. 

Parkman,  Francis:  149. 

Parkville,  Mo.:  36. 

Partizan,  Saone  Sioux  Indian:  90. 

Paston:  130. 

Pasu  Ksapa  (Le  Nez),  Sioux  chief: 


Patron:  29,42. 
Pawnee  County,  Neb.:  40. 
Pawnee  Indians:     mentioned,  37, 

57,  101;  described,  69. 
Pawnee  Island:  54. 
Pawnee  village:  30. 
Pawnee  Loup  (Skidi)  Indians:  69. 
Pelletier,  Jean  B.:  154. 
Peltier,  Antoine:  157. 
Penny,  Margaret:  52. 
Peoria,  111.:  154. 
Pere,  Mr.:  103. 
Pereau,  Paul:  158. 
Polly,  John:  157. 
Perkins  County,  S.  D.:  66. 
Perrin,  Catherine:  89. 
Perrin  du  Lac's  map:  cited,  45, 


Perry,  Robert:  47. 
Perry  Creek:  47. 
Peru,  Neb.:  41. 
Petit  Arc  Creek:  49. 
Petite  Cotes:  see  St.  Charles. 
Petite  Riviere  des  Sioux:  45. 
Petite-sas-Plains:  32. 
Philibert,  Edmond:  155. 
Philibert,  Joseph:  155. 
Piegans  Indians:  102. 
Piaheto   (Plume  d'Aigje,   Eagle's 

Feather),  Ankara  chief:  see  La 


Picard,  Helene:  34. 
Picard,  John:  88. 
Pike,  Lieutenant  Zebulon  M.:  43, 

57;  expedition  of,  43,  50,  72,  90; 

sketch  of,  123. 
Pike  County,  Mo.:  123. 
Pike's  Peak:  76,  123. 
Pilcher,  Joshua:  letter  from,  139. 
Pilon,  Rosalie:  156. 
Pipestonc,  Minn.:  51. 
Platte  County,  Mo. :  36. 
Platte  River:  described,  43;  men- 
tioned, 1 8,  51,  57,  69;    North 

Platte,  57,  91,  138. 



Plume  d'Aigle  (Eagle's  Feather): 
see  La  Plume. 

Plus:  125. 

Point  du  Sable,  Jean  Baptiste: 
sent  for  stolen  horses,  93;  sketch 
of,  153;  engag^,  157. 

Point  du  Sable,  Jean  B.,  Jr.:  death 
of,  154. 

Point  du  Sable,  Susanne:  154. 

Point  Jacques :  44. 

Point  Labadie,  Mo.:  144. 

Ponca  Indians:  described,  50; 
mentioned,  51,  115. 

Ponca  Creek:  described,  54. 

Poor  Little  Wolf,  Cheyenne  In- 
dian: 99. 

Portage  des  Sioux:  56,  90. 

Portage ville,  Mo.:  100. 

Porteau:  18,  20. 

Pottawattamie  County,  Iowa:  44, 

Potter  County,  S.  D.:  in. 

Potts,  John:  102. 

Poulin,  Isadore:  148. 

Poulin,  Mary:  147. 

Portland,  Oregon:  135. 

Pourcelle,  A.:  129,  131  • 

Prairie  du  Chien:  59. 

Prairie  du  Feu:  33. 

Prairie  du  Rocher:  59. 

Pratte  &  Vasquez:  148. 

Prevost,  Jean  Baptiste:  sketch  of, 
90;  turned  out  of  Fort,  91; 
arouses  the  Arikaras,  92;  ac- 
cused of  inciting  the  Indians, 
93;  explains  his  conduct,  94; 
pardoned  by  Lisa,  99;  engag6, 


Primeau,  Paul:  149. 
Primeau,  Pelagic:  149. 
Primeau,  Pierre:  158. 
Princeton,  N.  J.:  146. 
Provenchere,  Peter:  103. 
Pryor,  Nathanjcel:  57,  74. 
Pulaski  County,  111.:  146. 

Quapaw  Reserve:  151. 
Quebec,  Canada:  149. 
Quenneville,  Francois:  hunting, 

60,  61;   sketch  of,  "60;    cngag6y 

Quenneville  family:  60. 

Rajotte,  Francois:  in. 

Raven  Nose,  Sioux  chief:  see  Nez 

de  Corbeau. 

Red  River:  24,  47,  64,  70,  79,  88. 
Red  Shield,  Indian  chief:  73. 
Reevey's  Prairie:  38. 
Republican  Pawnee  Indians:    69. 
Ribeau,  Agathe:  88. 
Richardson,  Amos:  29;  sketch  of, 


Richardson,  Daniel:  144,  145. 
Richardson,  Nancy:  144. 
Richardson,  Richard:  145. 
Richardson  County,  Neb. :  40. 
Richwoods,  Mo. :  139. 
Riddle,  Mrs.  Esther  Daniels:  146. 
Riddle,  James:  146. 
Rio  del  Norte:  101. 
RioGrande:  123. 
Riviere  a  Jacques:  49. 
Riviere  Croche:  48. 
Riviere  des  Soldats:  45. 
Riviere  du  Chambly,  Quebec:  34. 
Riviere  du  Chene:  77. 
Riviere  du  Loup:  40. 
Riviere  du  Sauteux:  104. 
Rob>idou,  Frangois:  meets  expedi- 
tion, 34;    mentioned,  88,    138; 

sketch  of,  147. 
Robidou,  Joseph,  Sr.:  147. 
Robidou,  Joseph,  Jr. :  147. 
Robidou  family:  147. 
Robjdoux,  Louis  R.:  147. 
Robldoux,  Sellico:  147. 
Robinson,  Dr.  Doane:  quoted,  67, 

68.  t 

Rondin:  154. 

Rodriguez,  Marie  Ignacia:  142. 
Roger  Creek:  44. 
Rolet.te,  dit  Laderoute:  1^4. 
Rolette,  dit  Laderoute,  Catherine: 

Roman  Nose,  Sioux  chief:  see  Nez 

de  Corbeau. 
Rose,  Edouard:  157. 



Rosebud  Creek:  56. 
Rosebud  Landing,  S.  D.:  56. 
Ross,  Alexander:  cited,  106. 
Rotuie,  Joseph:  156. 
Rousseau,  Michel:  157. 
Routier,  Genevieve:  148. 
Roy,  Francois:  157. 
Roy,  Madeleine:  156. 
Ruff,  Anne  Elizabeth:  153. 
Ruff,  General  Charles:  153. 

Sacajawea:  see  Sakakawea. 

Sage,  Rufus:  140. 

St.  Charles  County:   60,  64,  102, 

146,  154;  records  of,  13. 
St.  Charles  County  Rangers:  35. 
St.  Charles,  Mo.:    described,  28; 
mentioned,  27,  60,  91,  114,  153. 
St.  Clair  County,  111.:  court  rec- 
ords, 154- 

St.  Ferdinand  Township:  138,146. 
Ste.  Genevieve:  Mo.  43. 
St.  Germain,  Andre:  157. 
St.  Helena,  Neb.:  45. 
St.  John's  Township,  Mo.:  144. 
St.  Joseph,  Mo.:  88,  147,  155. 
St.  Louis  Catholic  Cathedral:  rec- 
ords, 29,  154- 

St.  Louis,  Mo.:  court  records,  13, 
43,  59;  mentioned,  17,  19,  53, 
64,  114,  I33»  I34>  I35>  139,  HO, 
142,  145,  I47»  H9,  .156;  boat, 
leaves  tor,  75;  ex>edition  leaves 
27.335  directory  of,  91,  155. 
St.  Louis  Missouri  Fur  Company: 

15,43,  in,  148,  150,  151. 
St.  Michel,  Jean  Baptiste:  60. 
St.  Peter's  River:  90,  122. 
St.  Pierre,  Gueniche:  158. 
St.  Rose,  Quebec:  34. 
Sakakawea:    wife  of  Toussaint 
Charbonneau,  24;  death  of,  106; 
sketch  of,  132;  mentioned,  138, 
140;  monuments  to,  135. 
Saline  County,  Mo.:  32. 
Salt  River:  fort  on,  123. 
San  Domingo:  153. 
San  Francisco:  35. 
Sanguinet,  Charles,  fits:  in  search 
of  Champlain's  party,  20,  76, 

142,  158;  makes  signal  fires,  54; 
sends  letter  to  Lisa,  101;  asks 
for  men  to  meet  him,  103;  no 
news  from,  107;  arrives  at  Fort, 
Iio;  goes  hunting,  116;  helps 
Arikaras  move,  117;  goes  to 
Mandans,  119;  engagt,  157; 
sketch  of,  149. 

Sanguinet,  Christopher:  149. 
Sanguinet,  Simon:  149. 
Sanguinet  famijy:  150. 

Sanguinet  &  Robidou:  149. 

Sans  Arcs  Indians:  57. 

Santa  Fe,  N.  M.:  36,  123. 

SantaFeparty:  17;  atFortOsage, 
35;  traders,  51. 

Saone  Indians:  56;  described,  57; 
peace  conference  with  Ari^aras* 
79;  at  Arikara  vijlage,  97;  at 
Cheyenne  camp,  124. 

Sarpy  County,  Neb.:  44. 

Sauk  Indians:  27,  37,  148. 

Sawyer:  39. 

Say,  Thomas:  44. 

Scalp  Song:  104. 

Schaeffer,  Augustus:  155. 

Schultz,  James:  cited,  133. 

Selkirk  Establishment:  24. 

Senecal:  103. 

Shai-ene  (Sioux  name  for  Chey- 
enne Indians),  70. 

Shannon,  George:  56. 

Shannon  Creek:  56. 

Shawnee  Indians:  52. 

Sheheke  (Big  White),  Mandan 
chief:  57;  sketch  of,  73;  deati 
of,  82;  mentioned,  79,  83. 

Shepherd  River:  29. 

Shope's:  131. 

Shoshone  Mountains:  77. 

Shoshoni  Indians:  mentioned,  79, 
101,  135,  138;  described,  106. 

Sibley,  Major  George  C.,  Indian 
Agent:  mentioned,  19,  34;  de- 
scribes Kansas  Indians,  36. 

Sibley,  Mo.:  34. 

Sihasapa  Indians:  57. 

Simoneau  Island:  156. 

Simpson,  Dr.  Robert:  131. 

Sioux  Indians:  kill  Lisa's  men,  15; 



in  War  of  1812,  22,  55;  trading- 
house  of,  28;  mentioned,  50,  51, 
55,70,109;  territory  of,  51;  at 
war  with  Poncas,  5 1 ;  lodges  of, 
54,  104;  at  war  with  Arikaras, 
76,  120;  chiefs,  56,  77,  80;  offer 
to  make  peace  with  Arikaras,  79; 
at  Fort  Manuel.  80,  82, 90;  steal 
horses  from  Fort,  83;  reported 
to  have  killed  Bijou,  104,  105; 
reject  Lisa's  friendship,  108; 
Cheyennes  offer  peace  pipe,  113; 
fight  Cheyennes,  115;  commence 
war  on  Arikaras,  113;  chief 
killed,  115;  attack  Fort  Manuel, 
125,  127;  steal  Cheyennes' 
horses,  127;  kill  Grosventre  In- 
dian, 1 1 8. 

Sioux  City,  Iowa:  45,  47. 

Sire,  Joseph  A.:  156,  157. 

Sleeper,  Teton  Sioux  chief:  sketch 

of»  55- 

Sleepy  Eyes,  Sioux  chief:  56. 

Snake  Indians:  see  Shoshoni  In- 

Snake  River:  38. 

Sni-a-bar  Township,  Jackson  Co., 
Mo.:  33. 

Soldier  River:  described,  45. 

South  Dakota  Historical  Society: 

Southwestern  Historical  Quarterly: 


Spanish  Company:  60,  114,  149. 

Spanish  Country:  14. 

Spanish  Military  Post:  27. 

Spanish  settlements:  18. 

Spanish  Traders:  16. 

Spanish  Waters:  see  Arkansas 

Springfield,  ID.:  146. 

Standing  Rock  Indian  Reserva- 
tion: 66. 

Stanley  County,  S.  D.:  63. 

Stevens,  Elisha,  party:  35. 

Stoddard  County,  Mo.:  52. 

Sun  Island:  41. 

Sun  River  (Perry  Creek):  47. 

Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs: 
S3,  139- 

Sur-wa-carna  (Park  River):  64. 

Tabeau,  Celeste:  88. 

Tabeau,  Jacques:  88. 

Tabeau  family:  88. 

Tanguay,  L'Abb6  Cyprien:  cited, 
42,  89,  124. 

Tapage,  or  Noisy  Pawnee  Indians  : 

Tardit,  G'-n'omme:  157. 

Taylor,  Major  Zachary:  35. 

Trhanka.ndata:  48. 

Teton  River  (Bad  River):  men- 
tioned, 52,  56,  57,  58;  described, 

Teton  Sioux  Indians:  mentioned, 
55,  56;  described,  57. 

Third  Missouri  Infantry,  C.  S.  A.: 


Thompson,  David:  79. 

Three  Forks,  Mont.:  135. 

Ticio,  Baptiste:  148. 

Tillier,  Rudolph,  U.  S.  Indian  Fac- 
tor: 27. 

Toulouse,  Alexander:  158. 

Tracy,  Edward  N.:  53. 

Trail  Creek:  153. 

Tripp  County,  S.  D.:  54. 

Trudil,  Francoise:  88. 

Trudeau,  Adrienne:  156. 

Trudeau,  Antoine  L.:  156. 

Trudeau,  Jean  Baptiste:  53,  60, 
67,  114,  156. 

Trudeau,  Louis:  156. 

Trudeau,  Zenon:  103. 

Tsis-tsis  (Cheyenne):  70. 

Two  Forks:  135. 

Two  Kettle  Indians:  57. 

Upper  Missouri  Outfit:   148,  155. 
U.  S.  Geological  Survey:  135. 
U.  S.  Indian  Factory:  27. 
U.  S.  Military  Fort:  27. 
Ute  Indians:  101. 

Valle,  Jean  Baptiste:  144. 
Vasquez  &  Pratte:  148. 
Vasseur,  Helene:  34. 
Vasseur,  Joseph:  34. 
Vera  Cruz:  146. 



Verdigris  River:  50. 
Vermillion  Post:  49. 
Vermiilion,  S.  D.:  48. 
Vermillion  River:  48,  51. 
Vernon  County,  Mo. :  51. 
Vertefeuille,  Joseph:  140. 
Vertefeuille,  Victoire:  140. 
Vincennes,  Ind.:  146. 

Wabash  River:  50. 
Wah-kan-tah-pay,  Indian  chief: 

Wakpa  Chicha  (Bad  River):    62. 
Wallis,  Allen:  88. 
Wallis,  Maryanne:  88. 
Warofi8i2:  14,  22,  30,  34,  55,  57, 


Washington  County,  Mo.:  139. 
Washington  County,  Neb. :  44, 45 . 
Washte  Wajpa  (Good  River):  63. 
Wasiska:  53. 
Wassisha:  48. 
Watpa-ipak-shan:  48. 
Waugh,  James  C:  53. 
Wayne  County,  Ky.:  31. 
Weir,  James:  65. 
Weir,  John:  65. 
Weir,  William:  sketch  o",  65;  en- 

gag£,  157. 

Welch,  Rev.  J.  E.:  134- 
Wells  County,  N.  D.:  49. 
Westport,  Mo.:  140. 
Weterhoo  (Grand  River):  65. 
Wheeler,  O.  D.:  cited,  62,  137. 

White  Lime  Creek:  53. 

White  Paint  Creek:  53. 

White  River:  14,  57,  140;  de- 
scribed, 55. 

Whitestone  River:  48. 

Wihethtanga,  Osage  Indian  wom- 
an: 60. 

Wilkinson,  General  James:  27. 

Williams,  Ezekiel:  adventures  of, 
17-19;  goes  back  to  Arapaho 
village,  20;  prisoner  in  Kansas 
village,  19,  35. 

Wilt,  Catherine:  153. 

Wilt,  Christian:  letter-book  of,  12, 
13,  15;  letters  to  Luttig,  129- 


Wind  River  Mountains:  77. 
Winnebago  Indians:  51. 
Winnebago  Land  Company:   146. 
Wiser,  Peter:  102. 
Woahl,  Francois:  see  Oulle. 
Wolf  River:  40. 
Wyeth,  Nathaniel:  140. 

Yankton  Indians:  described,  51; 
mentioned,  55,  56. 

Yankton,  S.  D.:  49. 

Yanktonai  Indians:  51;  men- 
tioned, 55,  72,  139;  arrive  at 
Fort,  81. 

Yellowstone  River:  77. 

York  (Toronto),  Canada:  123. 

Zimm,  Bruno  Louis:  135. 

Index  191 


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HD  Luttig,   John  C 

99^  Journal  of  a  fur-trading 

U*f6M8  expedition